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What is Programming
Terms in this set (68)
A sequence of instructions that makes a computer perform a desire task.
A person who writes a program for a computer
Directly manipulating the 1's and 0's of the computers binary language
EDSAC had an assembler called initial order which used single letter mnemonic symbols to represent different series of bits
"Amazing Grace" wrote the first compiler (a type of translator) in 1952 for the language A-O. This paved the way for the other languages that followed.
Languages that function at, or very close to 1's or 0's. Powerful but very difficult. Ex) machine language, assembly language.
High Level Languages
Languages that use English-like words as instructions. Easier, but less powerful.
Example: BASIC, pascal, COBOL, FORTRAN, PL/I, Java
Very High Level Languages
Languages that us clickable pictures as instruction.
Example: Lego Mindstorms NXT
Translates a high level language into low level machine code
Translates the entire program into an executable file before execution
Translates one program statement at a time during execution
(1957) stands for FORmula TRANslation, first successful high level programming language.
1958) LISt Processing, specifically designed to help develop artificial intelligence.
(1959) stands for Common Business Oriented Language, created for the business community and the armed forces
(1960) FORTRAN programmers wanted computers that were suited for number crunching. COBOL programmers wanted computers that were suited for record handling. Companies like IBM would have different models for FORTRAN programmers and COBOL programmers. IBM system/360 family of computers standardized hardware and was suitable for both.
(1964) Stands for programming language 1. This language combined all of the number crunching features of FORTRAN with all of the record handing features of COBOL "everything for everyone". Too complex to learn.
(1964) stands for Beginners all-purpose symbolic instruction code. Their intention was that a simple language would give non-math and non-science majors the ability to use computers. BASIC required little memory, and it was the only language that could initially be handled by the first personal computers.
(1969) college professors did not like BASIC because it did not teach proper programming structure. He named this new language Pascal after Blaise Pascal, and was a very lean language. Finally both FORTRAN and COBOL people happy. 1983 college board adopted Pascal as the official language for the AP computer science exam
(1972) (Basic combined programming language) BCP L-> B -> C -> C++
(1983) as computer programs grew more complex a new, more powerful, and more reliable type of programming was needed. This lead to the development of Object Oriented Programming (OOP). 1997, C++ replaced Pascal for the AP computer science exam.
C and C++ are sometimes considered to be medium level languages. English commands of a high-level language as well as the power of a low- level language. Very popular with professional programmers.
(1995) released in 1995 by Sun Microsystems. Oracle acquired Sun Microsystems. Java is platform independent language. Since 2003 java is the official language for the AP computer science exam.
Lego Mindstorm NXT
(2006) very high-level. Style of programming, the programmers can click on different block. Each block performs a different task. By creating a sequence of these blocks, you can program a computer.
Early personal computers were not networked at all. Every computer was a stand-alone computer. Some computers were hooked up to printers and many others were not. If you needed to print something, and you were not directly connected to a printer, you saved your work to a floppy disk, put on your sneakers, and walked to the printing computer.
The first practical networks for personal computers were peer-to-peer networks. These are small groups of computers with a common purpose all connected to each other. These types of networks were frequently called Local Area Networks, or LANs. This means that every computer on the network was equal
A server is a special computer that is connected to the LAN for one or more purposes. They can also be used for printing, logon authentications, permanent data storage and communication
Clients are the computers in the network that are serviced by the server
The internet has existed since the 1960's. A means of communication had to be created that was capable to keep working regardless of damage created anywhere. The internet has no central location where all the control computers are located.
(Internet Service Provider) this will cost money and every person, every school, every business, who wants this access needs to use an Internet service provider.
An intranet behaves like the internet on a local business level. LANs that all connect into a larger network called intranet. This promotes security, speed, and saves cost.
How long ago was the Abacus invented
5000 years ago
The slide rule was replace by
the scientific calculator
who is the father of computers
mother of programming
Countess Ada Byron
which devices used punched cards to enter information or to program the device.
Jacquards loom, Babbages analytical engine, Hollerith's tabulating machine
the first literal computer bug occurred when
a moth got stuck in the relays of the Mark-II
what computer was used by British code breaker to help decrypt the secret coded messages of the Germans during World War II
What was the first Electronic general purpose computer
What was the first stored program computer
What was the first commercially available computer
The UNIVAC I
In what way were Transistors an improvement over vacuum tubes
transistors are much smaller, dont produce heat, and do not burn out
today's microchips hold
billions of transistors
what was the first successful personal computer
the Apple II
what was the first personal computer to be taken seriously by the business community and accepted as a business tool
what was the first commercially successful computer to use a mouse and a windows style operating system
what company first developed the computer mouse
Herman Hollerith invented a tabulating machine to help the 1890 census. After his success he started a company that still exists today. What is the name of that company
what company created the first operating system for the IBM-PC
which of the following networks is described below?
A group of computers that are NOT connected with any cables and also have no wireless connection. File are shared by copying information to a disk and then giving the disk to someone else. Files are printed by copying the information to a disk and then walking the disk to the one computer with a printer attacked to it.
A group of computers that are connected in some way (either physically with cables or through a wireless connection) all of the computers in this type of network are equal. this type of network only works for small group of computers
peer to peer network
a group of computers that are connected in some way (either physically with cables or through a wireless connection) at least one of the computers is a special dedicated computer used for things like login or network printing. This type of network is needed for large LAN
Client server network
getting access to this network requires the services of an ISP. you or some business must pay the ISP for the access. This type of network is not limited to one building or one campus, or even one city. People all over the work can communicate and share ideas with this type of network
the internet was created during (and in response to) which era in American History?
The cold War
what person/organization is responsible for creating the internet ?
The Department of Defense (DoD)
what is a sequence of instructions which enables a computer to perform a desired task
which of the following are examples of high-level programming languages
BASIC, Pascal, FORTRAN, COBOL, LISP, PL/I, Java
Which of the following are examples of medium-level programming languages
C and C++
which of the following are examples of low-level programming languages
machine language and assembly language
which of the following are examples of very high-level programming languages
Lego NXT and NXT 2.1
the first successful programming language was designed for mathematicians, scientists, and engineers. what language was this
which of these was the first "business language"
what language was created by combining C with Object Oriented Programming
what language was released by Sun Micro systems in 1995 as the first platform independent language
which of these was the first language used for personal computers and was also a language designed for beginners
which language was designed by Nickolas Wirth to teach computer science and became the first language used on the AP Computer Science Exam
what kind of translator translates an entire program to low level code before execution
what kind of translator translates a program one line at a time during execution
which of the following are issues with a wireless network connection
not always reliable and information is easier to be picked up by hackers
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