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38 terms

Biology Chapter 7

Vocabulary and terms from chapter 7 in the Pearson biology textbook.
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Cell
The basic units of life.
Cell Theory
Fundamental concept of Biology. (All living things are made of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function, new cells are produced from existing cells.)
Cell Membrane
A thin flexible barrier.
Nucleus
A large membrane enclosed structure that contains genetic material in the form of DNA. Contains all the cell's DNA and coded instructions for making proteins and other molecules. Where chromosomes are found.
Eukaryote
Cells that enclose their DNA in nuclei.
Prokaryote
Cells that do not enclose DNA in nuclei.
Microscopes
Uses lenses to magnify an image using light or electrons.
Light Microscope
Allows light to pass through to view a specimen. May distort detail and/or the view.
Electron Microscopes
Has a much higher resolution and uses electrons to focus on magnetic fields.
Cytoplasm
The portion of the cell outside the nucleus. Works with the nucleus in the business of "life". In both plant and animal cells.
Organelles
Little specialized organs that help cells act as a whole.
Vacoules
Large, saclike, membrane enclosed structures. Stores materials like water, salt, proteins and carbohydrates. Has a central which increases the rigidty in cells Found in both plant and animsl cells.
Lysosomes
Small organelles filled with enzymes. Breaks down lipids, carbohydrates and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell. Removes junk from the cell. Also breaks down useless organelles. Found in animal and some plant cells.
Cytoskeleton
Network of protein filaments. Helps the cell maintain its shape and is also involved in the movement. Also helps transport materials to different parts of the cell.
Ribosomes
Small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm in all cells. Proteins are assembled on these. Produce proteins by following instructed coding (DNA). Found in both plant and animal cells.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
An internal membrne system found in Eukaryotic cells. Where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials exported from the cell. In both plant and animal cells.
Golgi Apparatus
Where proteins are moved after exiting the Rough ER, which appears as a stack of flatened membranes. Modifies, sorts and packages proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum for storage in the cell or release outside the cell. Found in both plant and animal cells.
Chloroplast
Biological equivelents to solar power plants. Capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into food that contains chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis. Only in plant cells.
Mitochondria
The powerplant of the cell. Convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convient for the cell to use. Come from the cytoplasm of your mom's ovum. Found in both plant and animal cells.
Cell Wall
A strong supporting layer around the membrane. It supports, shapes, and protects the cell. Lies outside the cell membrane. Porous enough to allow certain substances through. Provides strength for plants to stand against gravity. Found only in plant cells.
Lipid Bilayer
Gives cell membranes a flexible structure that froms a strong barrier around the cell and its surroundings.
Diffusion
The process by which particles move from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Facilitated Diffusion
The process by which molecules that cannot directly diffuse across the membrane pass through special protein channels.
Osmosis
The facilitated diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
Aquaporins
Water channel proteins that allow water to pass through cell membranes.
Isotonic
Two adjacent solutions have the same concentrations of solute.
Hypertonic
Solutions have a higher concentration of solute compared to another solution.
Hypotonic
Solutions have a lower concentration of solute compared to another solution.
Osmotic Pressure
The force caused by the net movement of water by osmosis.
Endocytosis
Type of active transport. Takes materials into the cell.
Exocytosis
Gets ride of cell material.
Pumps
Made of protein. Move material from low to high concentration. Hold substances in a particular location
Phagocytosis
Cytoplasm surround and packages particles (food).
Pinocytosis
Takes in liquid.
Tissue
A group of similar cells that perform a particular function.
Organ
A group of tissues working together to perform an essential task.
Organ System
A group of organs that work together to perform a specific function.
Receptor
A signaling molecule to respond to a chemical signal.