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This is PART 2 of the 2009 study guide for the SEMESTER EXAM, you can continue to prepapre for the 2010 SEMESTER EXAM with this list!

Hydrologic Cycle

the movement of water in and around the Earth and atmosphere

Chemical Weathering

weathering that changes the mineral composition of rocks, ex: rust

Judicial Branch

The branch of government that interprets laws

Legislative Branch

the lawmaking branch of government

Executive Branch

the branch of government that enforces the laws.


an ancient land bridge over which the earliest Americans are believed to have migrated from Asia into the Americas


the north central region of the United States (sometimes called the heartland or the breadbasket of America)

The South

region that continues to grow in population due to the high use of air conditioners


an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs


tightly knit group of people sharing a common language, ethnicity, religion, and other cultural attributes.


a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them


a political system characterized by a centrally planned economy with all economic and political power resting in the hands of the central government


state ruled over by a single person, as a king or queen

Rocky Mountains

a major mountain system of the United states and Canada, extending 3,000 miles from Alaska south to New Mexico

Appaliachian Mountains

a major mountain range in the Eastern US, older than the Rockies

Service Industry

an industry that provides services rather than tangible objects

Columbian Exchange

A global exchange of people, plants, animals, technology, and disease form Americas to Europe. Began by Christopher Columbus. brought a commercial revolution and mercantilism.

Louisiana Purchase

1803 purchase of the Louisiana territory from France. Made by Jefferson, this doubled the size of the US.

Free Enterprise

the freedom of private businesses to operate competitively for profit with minimal government regulation, ex: USA


year of American independence from Great Britain


major rivers in South America


a narrow strip of land connecting two larger bodies of land, ex: Panama

Prairie Provinces

Breadbasket of Canada


the diversity of plant and animal life in a particular habitat (or in the world as a whole)

Andes Mountains

mountain range that runs along the Pacific coast of South America

Iberian Peninsula

contains Spain and Portugal

Scandinavian Peninsula

contains Norway and Sweden

Jutland Peninsula

contains Denmark

Italian Peninsula

contains the Po River and Rome

Balkan Peninsula

peninsula of SE Europe, bounded by the Black Sea, Sea of Marmara, and the Aegean, Mediterranean, Ionian, and Adriatic Seas


A structure designed to bring fresh water into a city or town


The effort to change or reform the Roman Catholic Church, which led to the establishment of Protestant churches


a series of military expeditions launched by Christian Europeans to win the Holy Land back from Muslim control


from the 14th to the 16th century- a new era of creativity and learning in Western Europe, Italy to be exact


the organized killing of European Jews and others by the Nazis during WWII

North Sea

Europe's major oil and natural gas deposits are located in the


consists of basic support systems needed to keep an economy going (power, communication, transportation, water, sanitation, and education)

Bubonic Plague/Black Death

spread by fleas and rats from port cities in Europe, killed 25 million people

United Kingdom

country in Northern Europe occupying most of the British Isles: England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland

Romance Language

the group of languages derived from Latin

Germanic Language

a branch of the Indo-European family of languages

Slavic Language

major language in eastern Europe

Berlin Wall

a wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West

Satellite Nations

The Eastern European nations that remained under the control of the Soviet Union after the Second World War.


goods produced domestically and sold abroad


goods produced abroad and sold domestically


official money of the European Union, first introduced in 2002


an almost continuous urban area made up of several cities and its suburbs

Command Economy

a system in which the central government makes all economic decisions

30 degrees S, 60 degrees W

the continent of South America

45 degrees N, 90 degrees W

the continent of North America

0 degrees, 30 degrees E

the continent of Africa

45 degrees N, 0 degrees

the continent of Europe

30 degrees S, 120 degrees E

the continent of Australia

60 degrees N, 90 degrees E

the continent of Asia

30 degrees N, 30 degrees W

the Atlantic Ocean

5 degrees S, 75 degrees E

the Indian Ocean

15 degrees N, 150 degrees E

the Pacific Ocean

75 degrees S, 120 degrees E

the continent of Antarctica


continent, country, island

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