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stratum corneum

The epidermal layer that consists almost entirely of keratin is the __________.


Cell divisions within the stratum __________ replace more superficial cells which eventually die and fall off.

ear canal

Cerumen is produced by glands located in the __________.


The layer primarily responsible for the strength of the skin is the __________ layer.


Which of these cells produce the fibers found within the reticular layer of the dermis?


Sudoriferous glands are also called __________ glands.

formation of a blood clot

The process of skin repair after injury begins with ___________.

vitamin D

An important vitamin that is formed in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight is_______


The type of cells that form the strata in the epidermis are___________

goose bumps are formed

When the arrector pili muscles contract,______

reticular layer

The dermis is composed of the papillary layer and the ___________.

cutaneous membrane and accessory structures

The two components of the integumentary system are the


Water loss due to evaporation of fluid that has penetrated through the skin is termed ________ perspiration.

dendritic cells

________ are cells in the epidermis that are part of the immune system.

stratum germinativium

The layer of stem cells that constantly divide to renew the epidermis is the

keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

The epidermis of the skin is composed of which type of tissue?


_________ store melanin in melanosomes

carotene and melanin

The primary pigments contained in the epidermis are


________signifies that a patient has oxygen starved skin


The ________ in keratinocytes protects the epidermis and dermis from the harmful effects of sunlight.


Which of the following is not an effect of ultraviolet radiation?
production of cholecalciferol within epidermal cells
chromosomal damage in germinative cells or melanocytes
increased activity by melanocytes


Is rickets genetic?

papillary plexus

what does the epidermis receive blood from?


The layer of the skin that contains the blood vessels and nerves that are closest to the surface of the skin is the ________ layer.


The layer of the skin that contains bundles of collagen and elastic fibers responsible for the strength of the skin is the ________ layer.


Skin inflammation that primarily involves the papillary layer is termed


The layer of soft keratin within the hair shaft is the ___________.


The layer of hard keratin that coats the hair is termed the


Variations in hair color reflect differences in the pigment produced by

on a fetus

Lanugo is found______


Glands that discharge an oily secretion into hair follicles are ________ glands.

apocrine sweat

The ________ glands in the axilla become active at the time of puberty.

blood flow to the skin increases

What happens if body temperature rises above normal?

nail root

Fingernails grow from which structure?

dermal fibroblasts

Collagen to repair a deep skin wound is produced by __________.


Nail production occurs at the nail________


Mast cells are triggering a response to injury during which phase of repair?


In a penetrating wound, ________ divide to produce mobile cells that repair the dermis.

blood flow to the skin increases

If a fair-skinned person is sunburned, why does his or her skin turn red?

scar tissue

large numbers of collagen fibers and relatively few blood vessels in the injured area result in __________

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