Terms in this set (39)
chain of carbons
things attached to a carbon skeleton
molecules with a lot of atoms in them
large molecule consisting of a bunch of identical small molecules connected
make up a polymer
chemical reaction that links two monomers together
carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids
made of sugars and starches, monomer units are monosaccharides
what is the most common monosaccharide?
two monosaccharides linked together
long chains of monosaccharides
made of carbon and hydrogen, very hydrophobic
contain all single bonds in the carbon chain, solid at room temp
contain one or more double bonds in the carbon chain, liquid at room temp
phospholipids, steroids, waxes
part of cell membrane, made up of two fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol, important to membrane transport
in cell membranes, also are hormones, composed of four fused carbon rings with various functional groups attached
made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; performs most functions in cells
what is the protein monomer?
amino acids, link together to form polypeptide (protein)
what is a link btwn two amino acids called?
the 3-D shape of a protein that the amino acid folds itself into
breaking the conformation of the protein
the unique sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide, which and what order the amino acids are in
the folding or coiling of the polypeptide (amino acid chain) into a repeating pattern in local area
what are the two kinds of secondary structures?
alpha helix and beta pleated sheet
the 3-D structure based on the original primary structure, how does the polypeptide chain fold and bond to itself (hydrophobic on inside, hydrophilic on outside)
overall protein structure that results from the aggregation (collecting of parts into a mass) of two or more polypeptide subunits
sickle cell disease
results from a single amino acid substitution in the protein hemoglobin
what determines protein conformation?
-the order of the amino acids in the chains is the most important
-the environment and chemical conditions of the protein's environment can change the shape
polymers that make up DNA and RNA
what does the nucleic acid's DNA contain?
the instructions for making proteins
monomers that make up DNA and RNA, composed of sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogen base
group carries a negative charge, gives DNA negative charge
purines and pyridimines
bases that have two rings of carbon and nitrogen atoms
bases that have one ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms
DNA base pairs
every base forms hydrogen bonds in a complementary fashion
functions of DNA
stores info for the synthesis of specific proteins, directs RNA synthesis, directs protein synthesis through RNA, governs the reproduction and growth of cells, contains hereditary info