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the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth


A person of a non-Muslim religion whose right to practice that religion is protected (jews, christians)

eid al-fitr

end of Ramadan feast, literally, breaking of the fast


the way of life prescribed as normative for Muslims on the basis of the teachings and practices of Muhammad and interpretations of the Koran


a pilgrimage to mecca, performed as a duty by muslims


designate food seen as permissible according to Islamic law


a headscarf worn by Muslim women


the man who leads prayers in a mosque


A holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal


another word for prophet


the direction toward Mecca; the direction toward which Muslims pray


the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina


a fast that is carried out during the ninth month of the islamic calendar


"messenger"; one who delivers a message from God


the Muslim declaration of belief in the oneness of God (tawhid) and acceptance of Muhammad as God's prophet


Islamic code of law that includes rules for all aspects of life


a teacher and master in Islam, such as the leader of an order in Sufism

shi'a (shiites)

the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad


a follower of the largest (orthodox) branch of Islam, which feels that successors to Muhammad are to be chosen by the ummah (Muslim community)


the inner, mystical dimension of Islam; Sufis believe they are practicing Ihsan (perfection of worship)


Chapter of the Quran


exegesis of the Quran. Elucidation, explanation, interpretation, and commentary carried out in order to understand the Quran and its commandments. Muhammad is the most authoritative interpreter of the Quran.

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