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22 terms

Islam

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caliph
the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth
dhimmis
A person of a non-Muslim religion whose right to practice that religion is protected (jews, christians)
eid al-fitr
end of Ramadan feast, literally, breaking of the fast
hadith
the way of life prescribed as normative for Muslims on the basis of the teachings and practices of Muhammad and interpretations of the Koran
hajj
a pilgrimage to mecca, performed as a duty by muslims
halal
designate food seen as permissible according to Islamic law
hijab
a headscarf worn by Muslim women
imam
the man who leads prayers in a mosque
jihad
A holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
nabi
another word for prophet
qiblah
the direction toward Mecca; the direction toward which Muslims pray
qur'an
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
ramadan
a fast that is carried out during the ninth month of the islamic calendar
rasul
"messenger"; one who delivers a message from God
shahadah
the Muslim declaration of belief in the oneness of God (tawhid) and acceptance of Muhammad as God's prophet
shari'ah
Islamic code of law that includes rules for all aspects of life
shaykh
a teacher and master in Islam, such as the leader of an order in Sufism
shi'a (shiites)
the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad
sunni
a follower of the largest (orthodox) branch of Islam, which feels that successors to Muhammad are to be chosen by the ummah (Muslim community)
sufism
the inner, mystical dimension of Islam; Sufis believe they are practicing Ihsan (perfection of worship)
surah
Chapter of the Quran
tafsir
exegesis of the Quran. Elucidation, explanation, interpretation, and commentary carried out in order to understand the Quran and its commandments. Muhammad is the most authoritative interpreter of the Quran.