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the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth
A person of a non-Muslim religion whose right to practice that religion is protected (jews, christians)
the way of life prescribed as normative for Muslims on the basis of the teachings and practices of Muhammad and interpretations of the Koran
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
the Muslim declaration of belief in the oneness of God (tawhid) and acceptance of Muhammad as God's prophet
the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad
a follower of the largest (orthodox) branch of Islam, which feels that successors to Muhammad are to be chosen by the ummah (Muslim community)
the inner, mystical dimension of Islam; Sufis believe they are practicing Ihsan (perfection of worship)
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