Classical Period/ Golden Age
5th century. Starts at the Persian war and ends at the Peloponnesain war. Many advances during this time.
A choral song sung or chanted about a god or heroic figure. Hymn. 50 men or 50 boys. beginning of theater.
Added spoken parts during a song to make it more dramatic. begin dialogue. (Like in country.) (Added to Dithyramb.) (also playwright)
First actor. First to create character. Makes Dithyramb more dramatic. 6th century. took dialogue farther.
Euripides. Characters: Dionysus, chorus of Asian Bacchae, Teiresias, Camus, Pentheus, Attendant, First/ second messenger, Agave, Coryphaeus
Aristotle's 6 plot elements for tragedy:
Plot, character, thought, language/ diction, Music, Spectacle
Festival celebrating Dionysus. Start theatre. In spring (late march). In Piraeus (near athens) Dithyrambs preformed. Tragedy and comedy added later.
4 plays by one playwright. 1 comedy/ satyr 3 tragedy. All stand on own but have same theme.
group sharing. (no fourth wall) everyone together. social efficacious. Purpose. (frat party)
Revising history from the way it is told. Look through certain point of view. (eliete point of view)
chooses plays and Coregus. oversee and judge dithyramb. (11 months ahead of time) government elected.
Producer. Provides money for major expenses (rehearsals, costumes, musicians) (Win= great prestige) appointed by archon
added 2nd actor. chorus to 12 (used extensively). wrote about: wealthy families, lofty themes (high status. First world problems). Praised: lyrical poetry, dramatic structure, intellectual content. 7 plays (agamemnon). (founder of greek drama. master tetralogy.)
added 3rd actor. chorus to 15. Superb plot construction and character exploration. Realistic scene painting. 7 plays (oedipus).
Most modern of greek playwrights. More realism. Sympathetic portrayal of women. mixed tragedy, comedy, melodrama. diminished chorus use and chorus. (the bacchae).
old comedy. made fun of government. Inventive comic scenes. witty dialogue. Pointed Satire. Contemporary (about his time. not timeless). (Lysistrata).
During alexander the greats reign. defeated by romans (336-146) Art, culture, intellect. changes in architecture, acting, writing
huge. cover entire head. included hair and beards and distinctive features. Identifies character. in tragedies chorus all same masks. comic masks for chorus unusual.
Artists of Dionysus
like a union for actors. precursor to equality actors. named to remind them of religious background.
earliest professional performers. traveled. entertainment not religion. Juggling, acrobatics, wordless dances about fables, sketches with dialogue. with women. originate in southern italy. own guilds (not recognized by artists of Dionysus)
New Comedy. 4 plays. 5 acts. Aristotle's dramatic structure. role of chorus very minimal (greatly subtracted).
problem to be tested in greek old comedy. usually established in prologue. (ex: lysistrata- no sex until war ends)
All male. not always paid. never more than 3 on stage. one actor- multiple roles. vocal ability key.
scene which chorus speaks directly to audience. pokes fun at spectators (sometimes specific ones), or other subjects.
Origins of theater
Imitation, roleplaying, story telling, Rituals, ceremonies. (start with Abydos ritual into dithyrambs)
Roman values and focuses
Duty,Honor, loyalty, discipline, economy, endurance "A system is important and individuals part are part of the whole.". forces on practical, military, strategy, pop entertainment.
stock characters satirized from roman countryside. own mask and costume. short improvised based on domestic situations or mythological burlesque. motivated by base instinct (lust and greed). Country bumpkins.
Roman festival. Displayed athletic contests pop. entertainment. Tarquin established. held in september. dedicated to jupiter (roman zeus). no errors allowed.
genres not mixed. plays in 5 acts. only 3 on stage at once. God wrote in only when unavoidable. Chorus advances action is moral with high moral tone and good advice. teach and please. preach decorum. no extremes of emotion or offensive material.
476 ad. western roman empire falls. Punic wars and barbarians. Roman catholic church provided order.
Official language greek. Saves roman and greek manuscripts. falls due to split in Christianity with western and muslim.
100-1400. start into renaissance. rebirth into towns. self governed towns- end of feudalism. guilds for professions. spread of knowledge. theology. Monasteries for learning.
down to earth. comedy and popular entertainment. Domestic farce. Take from Greek theater and Etruscans. latin.
New comedy. own version. Eliminated chorus. addition of music to dialogue. emphasis on eavesdropping. setting of action on street.
roman comic writer. farcical situations and mastery of colloquial latin. popular. combined: song, dance, native italian farce, new comedy. trials and tribulation of romance. modern comedic musicals. 20 plays (the merchant)
First african play wright. New comedy. Characterization, subtly of expression. elegant language. prologue for background info or summarize plot. high society. double plots. more literary over exaggerated. stock characters. less music.
first female playwright. nun. convent in germany: Gandersheim. 12th century. Canoness(not confined to abby). read/ wrote in latin. wrote so students would not be corrupted. wrote like Terence with christian stories. 6 plays. recurring dramatic action: conversions of nonbelievers, renunciation of past sin. closet- dramas.
religious drama. usually sung or chanted. relates to bible. in latin. performed in churches. wrote and presented by clergy and choir boys.
move to outside. serious christian subject mixed with comedy. in everyday language not latin. 2 kinds: cycle plays, and morality plays
Cycle/ Mystery Plays
Dramatize bible. staged indecently as drama. show dramas presented in sequence. vernacular. dramatized as medical types (make more identifiable). has anachronism. spectacular. comedy added. unfold begging to end.
everyman. sermon in theatrical form. bigger theme. allegorical. persuade to repent. temptation back to virtue.
medieval. 2nd dramatic form. abrupt seeing changes. comedy and serious mixed. not single plot (2 separate but related plots) 2 stories 2 plots 2 sets of characters (repeat to reinforce) whole is greater than parts. Cycle plays.
roman playwright. cynical Seneca, violent. closet tragedy. adapted greek. wrote in latin. not chorus needed. emphasize dramatic violent spectacle on stage. villainous characters, supernatural characters. obsessed by overwhelming emotion.