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EASC:Chp. 8- Earthquakes and Earth's Interior
Chapter 8: 'Earthquakes and Earth's Interior' Book: Earth Science by Tarbuck, Lutgens, Tasa Ed. 12th
Terms in this set (52)
Vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy, slippage along the Earth's crust.
Zone within Earth where rock displacement produces an earthquake.
Movements are associated with large fractures in Earth's crust, San Andreas.
The sudden release of stored strain in rocks that results in movement along a fault.
Smaller earthquakes that follow the main earthquakes.
Small earthquakes that often precede a major earthquake; days-years after.
Displacement along a fault that is so slow and gradual that little seismic activity occurs.
Study of earthquakes and seismic waves.
An instrument that records earthquakes waves.
2 types of waves
seismic waves that travel along the outer layer of Earth
seismic waves that travel through Earth's interior
primary (P), waves
a type of seismic wave that involves alternating compression and expansion of the material through which it passes
secondary (S), waves
a seismic wave that involves oscillation perpendicular to the direction of propagation, "sheer wave," temporarily changes shape of materials.
is the location on the surface directly above the focus, used by seismogram from earthquakes, pinpointed from physical evidence
distance separating the receding station
using the seismogram, determine the time interval between the arrival of the first P wave and first S wave
greatest energy is released along a path around the other edge of the Pacific ocean, Japan, Philippines, Chile.
2 ways to measure the size of earthquakes
a measure of the degree of earthquake shaking at a given locale based an the amount of damage in location
seismic records, relies on calculations that use data provided by seismic records to estimate the amount of energy released at the source of the earthquake
modified Mercalli intensity scale
a 12 point scale developed to evaluate earthquake intensity based on the amount of damage to various structures
i. not felt except by a very few under especially favorable circumstances
ii. felt only by a few person at rest, especially on upper floors of buildings
iii. felt quite noticeably indoors, especially on upper floors of buildings, but many people do not recognize it as an earthquake
iv. during the day felt indoors by many, outdoors by few. sensation like heavy truck striking building.
v. felt y nearly everyone, man awakened. disturbances of trees, poles, and other tall objects sometimes noticed.
vi. felt by all; many frightened and run outdoors. some heavy furniture moved; few instances of fallen plaster or damaged chimneys. damage slight.
vii. everybody runs outdoors. damage negligible in buildings of good design and construction; slight0to-moderate in well0built ordinary structures; considerable in poorly built or badly designed structures.
viii. damage slight in specially designed structures; considerable in ordinary substantial buildings with partial collapse; great in poor built structures. fall of chimneys, factory stacks, columns, monuments, walls
ix. damage considerable in specially designed structures. buildings shifted off foundations. ground creaked conspicuously
x. some well-built wooden structures destroyed. most masonry and frame structures destroyed. ground badly cracked.
xi. few, if any, masonry structures remain standing. bridge destroyed. broad fissures in ground.
xii. damage total. waves seen on ground surfaces. objects thrown upward into air.
based on the amplitude of the largest-seismic wave recorded on a seismogram. accounted for the decrease in wave amplitude with increase of distance.
increase in wave amplitude corresponds to an increase of 1 on the magnitude scale, each unit of Richter magnitude equates to roughly a 32-fold energy increase.
can be calculated using several techniques, more precise measure of earthquake magnitude then the Richter scale that is derived from the amount of displacement that occurs along a fault zone
acceptance of moment magnitude
-it is the only magnitude scale that estimates adequately the size of very large earthquake
-it is a measure that can be derived mathematically from the size of the rupture surface and the amount of displacement and it better reflects the total energy released during an earthquake
-it can be verified by 2 independent methods- field studies that are based on measurements of fault displacement and seismographic methods using long-period waves
the energy released by an earthquake travels along Earth's surface, it causes the ground to vibrate in a complex manner by moving up and down as well as from side to side
damage attributes from several factors
duration of vibration
the nature of the material upon which the structure rests
the design of the structure (soft sediments generally amplify the vibrations more than bedrock)
a phenomenon, sometimes associated with earthquakes, in which soils into a third-like mass that is not capable of supporting building (underground objects-storage tanks, sewage lines may literally float toward the surface of their newly liquefied environment).
seismic sea waves
also known as tsunami and tidal waves, a rapidly moving ocean wave generated by earthquake activity capable of inflicting heavy damage in coasted regions
new mandarin fracture that shouldn't be there, rogue
fire being contained when buildings were dynamited a long a wave boulevard
goal is to provide a warning of the location and magnitude of a large earthquake within a narrow time frame
phenomena that precede and thus provide a warning of a forthcoming earthquake; C4- measuring uplift, subsidence, and strain in the rocks near active faults
give statistical estimates of the expected intensity of ground motion for a given area over a specified time frame
uniform building code
nationwide standards for designing earthquake-resistance structures.
based upon the premise that earthquakes are repetitive or cyclical, like the weather
3 distinct layers, heaviest (metals) materials in the center lighter solids (rocks) in the middle, liquid and gases on top
very thin outermost layer of the Earth, 2 types, continental and oceanic
7 kilometers, dark igneous (basalt) rock, younger and denser rocks
35-40 kilometers, homogeneous chemical composition-granodiorite, rock density 2.7 grams/cm cubed- 4 billion years old
2,900 kilometer thick layer of Earth located below the crust, dominant rock: peridotrite
(sphere of rock), the rigid outer layer of Earth, including the crust and upper mantle
a coherent unit of Earth's rigid outer layer that includes the crust and upper unit
weak sphere, a subdivision of the mantle situated below the lithosphere. this zone of weak material exists below a depth of about 100 kilometers and in some regions extends as deep as 700 kilometers. the rock within this zone is easily deformed.
the part of the mantle that extends from the core-mantle boundary to a depth of 660 kilometers
located beneath the mantle, it is the innermost layer of Earth. the core is divided into an outer core and inner core
a layer beneath the mantle about 2,270 kilometers thick that has the properties of a liquid
the solid innermost layer of Earth, about 1,300 kilometers in radio, strong evidence for a molten iron outer core is provided by Earth's magnetic field
a series of 10 minerals used as a standard in determining hardness
moves straight through the crust and recorded at nearby seismographs
down through the crust, along top of mantle; they are bent (retracted).
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