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Whenever he feels sexually jealous, David is flooded with painful recollections of the rare occasions in which he had observed his girlfriend flirting with other men. David's experience best illustrates:

mood-congruent memory.

The eerie feeling of having been somewhere before is an example of:

déjà vu.

Being in a bad mood after a hard day of work, Susan could think of nothing positive in her life. This is best explained as an example of:

mood-congruent memory.

When he was 8 years old, Frank was questioned by the police about a summer camp counselor suspected of molesting children. Even though he was not, in fact, molested by the counselor, today 19-year-old Frank "remembers" the counselor touching him inappropriately. Frank's false memory is an example of which "sin" of memory?


According to memory researcher Daniel Schacter, blocking occurs when:

information is on the tip of our tongue, but we can't get it out.

The famous Ebbinghaus forgetting curve indicates that how well we remember information depends on:

how long ago we learned that information.

After suffering a brain injury in a motorcycle accident, Adam cannot form new memories. He can, however, remember his life experiences before the accident. Adam's memory difficulty most clearly illustrates:

encoding failure.

Retroactive interference involves the disruption of:


The title of a song is on the tip of Gerard's tongue, but he cannot recall it until someone mentions the songwriter's name. Gerard's initial inability to recall the title was most likely caused by:

retrieval failure.

Which of the following sequences would be best to follow if you wanted to minimize interference-induced forgetting in order to improve your recall on the psychology midterm?

study, sleep, test

During her evening Spanish language exam, Janica so easily remembers the French vocabulary she studied that morning that she finds it difficult to recall the Spanish vocabulary she rehearsed that afternoon. Her difficulty best illustrates:

proactive interference.

After learning the combination for his new locker at school, Milton is unable to remember the combination for his year-old bicycle lock. Milton is experiencing the effects of:

retroactive interference.

Karl and Dee had a joyful wedding ceremony. After their painful divorce, however, they began to remember the wedding as a somewhat hectic and unpleasant event. Their recollections best illustrate the nature of:

memory construction.

Research on memory construction reveals that memories:

reflect a person's biases and assumptions.

Studies by Loftus and Palmer, in which people were quizzed about a film of an accident, indicate that:

people's recall may easily be affected by misleading information.

The misinformation effect provides evidence that memory:

may be reconstructed during recall according to how questions are framed.

Direct perception of an object and mental visualization of that object activate similar brain areas. This most clearly contributes to:

imagination inflation.

Memory researchers are suspicious of long-repressed memories of traumatic events that are "recovered" with the aid of drugs or hypnosis because:

such experiences usually are vividly remembered,memories of events happening before about age 3 are especially unreliable,such memories are unreliable and easily influenced by misinformation.

Incest survivors who lack conscious memories of their sexual abuse may sometimes be told that they are simply in a stage of "denial" and "repression." This explanation for their lack of abuse memories emphasizes:

retrieval failure.

You should study before sleeping in order to minimize:

retroactive interference.

After learning that kicking would move a crib mobile, infants showed that they recalled this learning best if they were tested in the same crib. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on recall.

retrieval cues

Negative recall primed by distressing emotions most clearly illustrates:

mood-congruent memory.

The happier Judie is, the more readily she recalls experiences with former teachers who were warm and generous. This best illustrates that emotional states can be:

retrieval cues.

A person who has trouble forgetting information, such as the Russian memory whiz S, often seems to have a limited capacity for:

abstract thinking.

Austin can't remember Jack Smith's name because he wasn't paying attention when Jack was formally introduced. Austin's poor memory is best explained in terms of:

encoding failure.

Which of the following best describes the typical forgetting curve?

a rapid initial decline in retention becoming stable thereafter

Jenkins and Dallenbach found that memory was better in subjects who were:

asleep during the retention interval, presumably because interference was reduced.

At your high school reunion you cannot remember the last name of your homeroom teacher. Your failure to remember is most likely the result of:

retrieval failure.

When Carlos was promoted, he moved into a new office with a new phone extension. Every time he is asked for his phone number, Carlos first thinks of his old extension, illustrating the effects of:

proactive interference.

While taking the final exam in American history, Marie was surprised and frustrated by her momentary inability to remember the name of the first president of the United States. Her difficulty most clearly illustrates:

retrieval failure.

Many of the experimental participants who were asked how fast two cars in a filmed traffic accident were going when they smashed into each other subsequently recalled seeing broken glass at the scene of the accident. This experiment best illustrated:

the misinformation effect.

The misinformation effect provides evidence that memory:

may be reconstructed during recall according to how questions are framed.

The misinformation effect best illustrates the dynamics of:

memory construction.

When memory researcher Elizabeth Loftus was an adolescent, her uncle incorrectly insisted that as a child she had found her own mother's drowned body. Loftus herself later falsely recollected finding the body. This best illustrates:

the misinformation effect.

Forming many associations between new course material and what you already know is an effective way to build a network of:

retrieval cues.

Incest survivors who lack conscious memories of their sexual abuse may sometimes be told that they are simply in a stage of "denial" and "repression." This explanation for their lack of abuse memories emphasizes:

retrieval failure.

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