44 terms

AP Psychology Modules 9 & 10 (Myer's)

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Biological Psychology
The scientific study of the links between biological (genetic, neural, hormonal) and psychological processes
Neuron
Basic building block of the nervous system
Cell body
Round, centrally located structure
Controls protein manufacturing
Contains DNA
Directs cell metabolism
No role in neural signaling
Life support center of the neuron.
Dendrite
The bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receives messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
Axon
The extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages are sent to other neurons or to muscles or glands
Myelin sheath
A layer of fatty cells encasing the axon fibers of many neurons
Acts ad an insulator or conductor and enables vastly greater transmission speed of impulses
Resting potential
The charge maintained when there are no action potentials
Threshold
Level of stimulation required to trigger an action potential
Action potential
All or nothing response
A neuron either fires or it does not
Movement of an electrical impulse down the axon
Synapse
Junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
Neurotransmitters
Chemicals that are used to relay, amplify, and modulate signals between a neuron and another cell
Reuptake
Neurotransmitters in the synapse are reabsorbed into the sending neurons through the process of reuptake
Agonosists
Fits receptor well and acts like the NT
ex: nicotine
Antagonists
Fits receptor poorly, occupying the site without activating the receptor (blocks the NT)
Reuptake inhibitors
Block reuptake sites on transmitting neuron
Serotonin
Affects mood; hunger (and satiety), sleep and arousal
Undersupply linked to depression
Found in the CNS
Norepinephrine
Helps control alertness and arousal
Oversupply- fight or flight response
Undersupply- can depress mood
Found in CNS and ANS
Acetylcholine
Enables muscle action, learning and memory
Alzheimer's Disease
Found in CNS and PNS
Anandamide
Involved in working memory
Possibly involved in eating and sleep patterns, motivation, pleasure and pain relief.
Found in CNS
GABA
Main inhibitory neurotransmitter
Undersupply - linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia
Found in CNS
Glutamate
Major excitatory neurotransmitter
Involved in memory
Oversupply - associated with epileptic seizures and migraine headaches
Found in CNS and PNS
Endorphins
Natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters
Linked to pain control and to pleasure
Released in response to pain
Dopamine
Involved in movement, attention, learning, pleasure and emotion
Excess - receptor activity linked to schizophrenia
Loss- tremors and decreased mobility of Parkinson's disease
Found in CNS and PNS
Neuromodulators
Substances other than NTs released by a neuron at a synapse and conveying info to a region of neurons, either enhancing or dampening their activities
Neurotransmitter
Neurons are specialized with regard to the NT that they release
Interneurons
Neurons that communicate within the CNS and intervene between sensory inputs and motor outputs
Motor/efferent neurons
Carry outgoing info from the CNS to muscles and glands
Sensory/afferent neurons
Carry incoming info from the sense receptors to the central nervous system
Exatatory neurons
Excite their target neurons
Make them do something else- send a message, release a chemical etc
Inhibitory neurons
Inhibit their target neurons
Prevent something from happening- stop a message, stop releasing a chemical, etc
Modulatory neurons
Evoke neuromodulation
Convey info to a region of neurons
Nevers
Neural "cables" containing many neurons
Connect the CNS with muscles, glands and sense organs
Nervous system
The body's speedy electrochemical communication system
Consists of all the nerve cells
CNS
The brain and spinal chord
PNS
Sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body
Somatic NS
Part of the PNS that controls the body's skeletal muscles
Autonomic NS
Part of the PNS that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (heart)
Sympathetic NS
division of the ANS that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
Parasympathetic NS
Division of the ANS that calms the body, conserving its energy
Endocrine system
The body's "slow" chemical communication system
A set of glands that synthesize and secrete hormones into the blood stream
Hormones
Chemical messengers produced in one tissue that affects the others
Hypothalamus
Subcortical structure of the brain that releases hormones or releasing factors that cause pituitary gland to release hormones
Pituitary gland
Regulates growth
Produces hormones that control hormone production in other glands
Adrenal glands
A pair of glands just above the kidneys
Secrete hormones that help arousal in stress