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SOC 101 chapter 3 and 11

Burlington County College Test #2
STUDY
PLAY
government
a formal organization that has the authority to make and enforce laws
politics
a social process through which individuals and groups acquire and exercise power and authority
power
the ability of a person or group to affect the behavior of others despite resistance and opposition
authority
the legitimate use of power
traditional authority
power based on customs that justify the position of the ruler
charismatic authority
power based on exception individual abilities and characteristics that inspire devotion, trust, and obedience
rational-legal authority
power based on the belief that laws and appointed or elected political leaders are legitimate
democracy
a political system in which, ideally, citizens have control over the state and its actions
totalitarianism
a political system in which the government controls every aspect of people's lives
authoritarianism
a political system in which the state controls the lives of citizens but generally permits some degree of individual freedom.
monarchy
a political system in which power resides in one person or family and is passed from generation to generation through lines of inheritance
political party
an organization that tries to influence and control government by recruiting, nominating, and electing its members to public office
special-interest group
A voluntary and organized association of people that attempts to influence public policy and policy makers on a particular issue.
lobbyist
a representative of a special-interest group who tries to influence political decisions on the group's behalf
political action committee (PAC)
The political arm of an interest group that is legally entitled to raise funds on a voluntary basis from members, stockholders, or employees in order to contribute funds to favored candidates or political parties.
pluralism
a political system in which power is distributed among a variety of competing groups in a society
power elite
a small group of influential people who make a nation's major political decisions
culture
enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
society
a group of people who have lived and worked together long enough to become and organized population and to think of themselves as a social unit
material culture
the tangible objects that members of a society make, use, and share
nonmaterial culture
the shared set of meanings that people in a society use to interpret and understand the world
symbol
anything that stands for something else and has a particular meaning for people who share the culture
language
a system of shared symbols that enables people to communicate with one another
values
the standards by which members of a particular culture define what is good or bad, moral or immoral, proper or improper, desirable or undesirable, beautiful or ugly
norms
a society's specific rules concerning right and wrong behavior
folkways
norms that members of society (or group with in a society) see as not being critical and that may be broken with out severe punishment
mores
norms that members of society consider very important because they maintain moral and ethical behavior
laws
formal rules about behavior that are defined by political authority that has the power to punish violators
sanctions
rewards for good or appropriate behavior and/or penalties for bad or inappropriate behavior
cultural universals
customs and practices that are common to all societies
ideal culture
the beliefs, values, and norms the people in a society say they hold or follow
real culture
the actual everyday behavior of people in a society
ethnocentrism
the belief that one's culture and way of life is superior to those of other groups
cultural relativism
the belief that no culture is better then another and that a culture should be judged by its own standards
subculture
a group or category of people whose distinctive ways of thinking, feeling, and acting differ somewhat from those of the larger society
counterculture
A group or category of people who deliberately oppose and consciously reject some of the basic beliefs, values, and norms of the dominant culture.
multiculturalism
The coexistence of several cultures in the same geographic area, without any one culture dominating another.
culture shock
A sense of confusion, uncertainty, disorientation, or anxiety that accompanies exposure to an unfamiliar way of life or environment.
popular culture
all the artifacts, values, knowledge, beliefs, and other cultural elements that appeal to the masses
mass media
those means of communication that reach large audiences, especially television, radio, printed publications, and the Internet
cultural imperialism
the cultural values and products of one society that influence or dominate those of another
cultural integration
The consistency of various aspects of society that promotes order and stability.
cultural lag
the gap when nonmaterial culture changes more slowly then material culture