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Asian Empire Vocab

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karma
all the actions that affect a person's fate in the next life in Hindu belief
dharma
a person's religious and moral duties (hinduism)
Ahimsa
a Hindu belief in nonviolence and reverence for all life
reincarnation
the rebirth of the soul in another bodily form (hinduism)
moksha
the ultimate goal of existence which is to achieve union with brahman (hinduism)
caste
unchangeable social group into which a person is born
Varna System
the caste system of Hinduism; Brahmans (priests and educated), Kshatriyas (warriors and government leaders), Vaisyas (common people; merchants, artisans, farmers), Sudras (unskilled workers and slaves), and the Pariahs (conquered people considered impure, untouchables.)
Nirvana
in buddhist belief, union with the universe and release from the cycle of rebirth
Asoka
the most honored Maurya emperor and Chandragupta's grandson (built hospitals, shrines, edicts.)
Siddhartha Guatama
reformer that spread teachings across Asia that eventually became the core beliefs of Buddhism
Four Noble Truths
the four basic beliefs that form the foundation of Buddhism
Eightfold Path
the past one must follow to achieve Nirvana (buddhism)
Chandragupta Maurya
a young adventurer that forged the first Indian empire in 321 BC
Muhammad
founder and prophet of Islam
Quran
holy book of Islam
Mecca
a city in western Saudi Arabia, the birthplace of the prophet Muhammad, and the most holy city for Islamic people
Kaaba
the most sacred temple of Islam and is located at Mecca
Calligraphy
the art of producing beautiful handwriting
Hajj
one of the Five Pillars of Faith (islam) and is the pilgrimage to Mecca that all Muslims are expected to make at least once in their lifetime
Genghis Khan
chieftan that imposed strict military discipline and demanded absolute loyalty. He also led the Mongols out of Central Asia across southwest Asia.
Kublai Khan
the grandson of Genghis Khan who toppled the last song emperor in 1279 and ruled all of China along with Korea and Tibet
Marco Polo
an important adviser from Venice. He wrote a book about his visit to China which caused European in the far east.
Shinto
a principle religion in Japan that emphasizes the worship of nature
shogun
supreme military commander who held more power than the emperor (Japanese feudal society)
samurai
a member of the warrior class in Japanese feudal society
bushido
the code of conduct for samurai during the feudal period in Japan
Zen
the practice of meditation; a school of Buddhism in Japan
dynastic cycle
the rise and fall of Chinese dynasties according to the Mandate of Heaven
Shi Huangdi
the emperor of the Qin Dynasty who used legalism and built the Great Wall of China
civil service
a system that allowed anyone with the ability to attain public office
civil servant
government official
Confucius
thinker and teacher who developed a philosophy that dealt with worldly ideas and put filial piety above all other duties
Laozi
a thinker that founded Daoism and stressed that people focus on the way of the universe
Filial piety
the respect for parents
Tang Dynasty
lasted from 618 to 907 that helped to restore China's earlier glory
Tang Taizong
a brilliant general who became China's most admired emperor
tributary state
an independent state that has to acknowledge the supremacy of another state and pay tribute to its ruler
land reform
a breakup of large agricultural holdings for redistribution among peasants
Song Dynasty
was a Chinese dynasty from 960 to 1279 that was known for its artistic achievements and also improved trade
pagoda
a multistoried Buddhist temple with eaves that curve up at the corners