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Chronology of Classical and Medieval Islam
Muhammad's first revelation
Hijra (migration to Yathrib/Medina)
Conquest of Mecca
Rashidun ("Rightly Guided") Caliphate 632-4
-commissioned the first codex of the Qur'an
Rashidun ("Rightly Guided") Caliphate 634-44
Rashidun ("Rightly Guided") Caliphate 644-56
-standardized the Qur'an's text. Last universally recognized caliph (except for Shi'i)
Rashidun ("Rightly Guided") Caliphate 656-61
Arab conquests in the Middle East and Central Asia
First Civil War (first "Fitna")
Emerged in late 650s. Opposed 'Ali and later caliphs
(661-750) Move of the capital from Medina to Damascus (Syria). Consolidation and expansion of the Muslim state. Beginnings of conversion to Islam in Middle East.
Umayyad Civil Wars
Dome of the Rock
(692) Constructed in Jerusalem by caliph 'Abd al-Malik (r. 685-705)
(750) Overthrow of the Umayyads
late 8th-10th centuries: Formative developments in Islamic law and theology; beginnings of Sunni and Shi'i Islam
Muhammad made no arrangements, so religious authority was left to his close companions. Consult the community at large for interpretation.
Leadership was promised to Muhammad's son-in-law/ cousin 'Ali. That family has special protection and authority as the Imam bloodline.
(d.767) Biographer of the Prophet
(d.765) Sixth Shi'i imam. Major figure in development of Shi'i law
- Abu Hanifa
(d.767) Founder of Hanafi school of law
(d.795) Founder of Maliki school of law
(d.820) founder of Shafi'i school of law
- Ahmad ibn Hanbal
(d.855) founder of Hanbali school of law
the global muslim community
statements or stories attributed to Muhammad or describing his behavior. Normative text
record of Muhammad's behavior: in particular, situations as an example for others. More abstract than the hadith's stated reports
"the support". Citations for statements by Muhammad.
You must have extensive training from a spiritual master to get close to God
"The cube" It's the central Holy place of Islam
(d.870) compiler of a collection of the Prophet Muhammad's teachings (hadith): most authoritative of Sunni collections
Muhammad's tribe, charged with the upkeep of the Ka'ba
Muhammad's first wife
Disappearance of the 12th imam
(d.923) major Sunni commentator of the Qur'an and historian
Covenant of Medina
forged a political community responsible for protecting Muhammad and his followers
Muhammad's wife & one of the most prolific sources about his life.
the scarring conflict that divided sects
commentary on the Qur'an
(d.929/3) One of the most influental commentators. From Iran. Sunni tradition. Recognized earlier religious traditions
(d.1209) One of the most influental commentators. From Iran
(d.1273) One of the most influental commentators. From Cordoba
(d.1373) One of the most influental commentators. From Damascus. Highly opinionated. Refuses to mention earlier religious traditions.
to make ONE: the oneness fo God
refusal to admit that God is the only
submission to the ONE God
God, the merciful one
a sign or verse in the Qur'an or in nature
before God created anything, he informed every soul about his existence
a moral torch