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50 terms

Chronology of Classical and Medieval Islam

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Muhammad
570-632
Muhammad's first revelation
610
Hijra (migration to Yathrib/Medina)
622/1
Conquest of Mecca
630
Abu Bakr
Rashidun ("Rightly Guided") Caliphate 632-4
-commissioned the first codex of the Qur'an
'Umar
Rashidun ("Rightly Guided") Caliphate 634-44
'Uthman
Rashidun ("Rightly Guided") Caliphate 644-56
-standardized the Qur'an's text. Last universally recognized caliph (except for Shi'i)
'Ali
Rashidun ("Rightly Guided") Caliphate 656-61
Arab conquests in the Middle East and Central Asia
632-656
First Civil War (first "Fitna")
656-61
Kharijites
Emerged in late 650s. Opposed 'Ali and later caliphs
Umayyad Caliphate
(661-750) Move of the capital from Medina to Damascus (Syria). Consolidation and expansion of the Muslim state. Beginnings of conversion to Islam in Middle East.
Umayyad Civil Wars
683-92, 744-50
Dome of the Rock
(692) Constructed in Jerusalem by caliph 'Abd al-Malik (r. 685-705)
'Abbasid revolution
(750) Overthrow of the Umayyads
'Abbasid Caliphate
762- Baghdad=capital
late 8th-10th centuries: Formative developments in Islamic law and theology; beginnings of Sunni and Shi'i Islam
Sunni Islam
Muhammad made no arrangements, so religious authority was left to his close companions. Consult the community at large for interpretation.
Shi'i Islam
Leadership was promised to Muhammad's son-in-law/ cousin 'Ali. That family has special protection and authority as the Imam bloodline.
*Ibn Ishaq
(d.767) Biographer of the Prophet
Ja'far al-Sadiq
(d.765) Sixth Shi'i imam. Major figure in development of Shi'i law
- Abu Hanifa
(d.767) Founder of Hanafi school of law
- Malik
(d.795) Founder of Maliki school of law
- al-Shafi'i
(d.820) founder of Shafi'i school of law
- Ahmad ibn Hanbal
(d.855) founder of Hanbali school of law
Umma
the global muslim community
Hadith
statements or stories attributed to Muhammad or describing his behavior. Normative text
Sunna
record of Muhammad's behavior: in particular, situations as an example for others. More abstract than the hadith's stated reports
Isnad
"the support". Citations for statements by Muhammad.
Sufi tradition
You must have extensive training from a spiritual master to get close to God
the Ka'ba
"The cube" It's the central Holy place of Islam
al-Bukahari
(d.870) compiler of a collection of the Prophet Muhammad's teachings (hadith): most authoritative of Sunni collections
Quraysh
Muhammad's tribe, charged with the upkeep of the Ka'ba
Khadija
Muhammad's first wife
Disappearance of the 12th imam
874
*al-Tabari
(d.923) major Sunni commentator of the Qur'an and historian
Covenant of Medina
forged a political community responsible for protecting Muhammad and his followers
A'isha
Muhammad's wife & one of the most prolific sources about his life.
Fitna
the scarring conflict that divided sects
Tafsir
commentary on the Qur'an
Tabari
(d.929/3) One of the most influental commentators. From Iran. Sunni tradition. Recognized earlier religious traditions
Razi
(d.1209) One of the most influental commentators. From Iran
Qurtubi
(d.1273) One of the most influental commentators. From Cordoba
Ibn Kathir
(d.1373) One of the most influental commentators. From Damascus. Highly opinionated. Refuses to mention earlier religious traditions.
Tawhid
to make ONE: the oneness fo God
shirk
refusal to admit that God is the only
Islam
submission to the ONE God
Rahman
God, the merciful one
aya
a sign or verse in the Qur'an or in nature
Primordial Covenant
before God created anything, he informed every soul about his existence
Taqua
a moral torch