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Rashidun ("Rightly Guided") Caliphate 644-56
-standardized the Qur'an's text. Last universally recognized caliph (except for Shi'i)
(661-750) Move of the capital from Medina to Damascus (Syria). Consolidation and expansion of the Muslim state. Beginnings of conversion to Islam in Middle East.
late 8th-10th centuries: Formative developments in Islamic law and theology; beginnings of Sunni and Shi'i Islam
Muhammad made no arrangements, so religious authority was left to his close companions. Consult the community at large for interpretation.
Leadership was promised to Muhammad's son-in-law/ cousin 'Ali. That family has special protection and authority as the Imam bloodline.
record of Muhammad's behavior: in particular, situations as an example for others. More abstract than the hadith's stated reports
(d.870) compiler of a collection of the Prophet Muhammad's teachings (hadith): most authoritative of Sunni collections
Covenant of Medina
forged a political community responsible for protecting Muhammad and his followers
(d.929/3) One of the most influental commentators. From Iran. Sunni tradition. Recognized earlier religious traditions
(d.1373) One of the most influental commentators. From Damascus. Highly opinionated. Refuses to mention earlier religious traditions.
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