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Muhammad's first revelation


Hijra (migration to Yathrib/Medina)


Conquest of Mecca


Abu Bakr

Rashidun ("Rightly Guided") Caliphate 632-4
-commissioned the first codex of the Qur'an


Rashidun ("Rightly Guided") Caliphate 634-44


Rashidun ("Rightly Guided") Caliphate 644-56
-standardized the Qur'an's text. Last universally recognized caliph (except for Shi'i)


Rashidun ("Rightly Guided") Caliphate 656-61

Arab conquests in the Middle East and Central Asia


First Civil War (first "Fitna")



Emerged in late 650s. Opposed 'Ali and later caliphs

Umayyad Caliphate

(661-750) Move of the capital from Medina to Damascus (Syria). Consolidation and expansion of the Muslim state. Beginnings of conversion to Islam in Middle East.

Umayyad Civil Wars

683-92, 744-50

Dome of the Rock

(692) Constructed in Jerusalem by caliph 'Abd al-Malik (r. 685-705)

'Abbasid revolution

(750) Overthrow of the Umayyads

'Abbasid Caliphate

762- Baghdad=capital
late 8th-10th centuries: Formative developments in Islamic law and theology; beginnings of Sunni and Shi'i Islam

Sunni Islam

Muhammad made no arrangements, so religious authority was left to his close companions. Consult the community at large for interpretation.

Shi'i Islam

Leadership was promised to Muhammad's son-in-law/ cousin 'Ali. That family has special protection and authority as the Imam bloodline.

*Ibn Ishaq

(d.767) Biographer of the Prophet

Ja'far al-Sadiq

(d.765) Sixth Shi'i imam. Major figure in development of Shi'i law

- Abu Hanifa

(d.767) Founder of Hanafi school of law

- Malik

(d.795) Founder of Maliki school of law

- al-Shafi'i

(d.820) founder of Shafi'i school of law

- Ahmad ibn Hanbal

(d.855) founder of Hanbali school of law


the global muslim community


statements or stories attributed to Muhammad or describing his behavior. Normative text


record of Muhammad's behavior: in particular, situations as an example for others. More abstract than the hadith's stated reports


"the support". Citations for statements by Muhammad.

Sufi tradition

You must have extensive training from a spiritual master to get close to God

the Ka'ba

"The cube" It's the central Holy place of Islam


(d.870) compiler of a collection of the Prophet Muhammad's teachings (hadith): most authoritative of Sunni collections


Muhammad's tribe, charged with the upkeep of the Ka'ba


Muhammad's first wife

Disappearance of the 12th imam



(d.923) major Sunni commentator of the Qur'an and historian

Covenant of Medina

forged a political community responsible for protecting Muhammad and his followers


Muhammad's wife & one of the most prolific sources about his life.


the scarring conflict that divided sects


commentary on the Qur'an


(d.929/3) One of the most influental commentators. From Iran. Sunni tradition. Recognized earlier religious traditions


(d.1209) One of the most influental commentators. From Iran


(d.1273) One of the most influental commentators. From Cordoba

Ibn Kathir

(d.1373) One of the most influental commentators. From Damascus. Highly opinionated. Refuses to mention earlier religious traditions.


to make ONE: the oneness fo God


refusal to admit that God is the only


submission to the ONE God


God, the merciful one


a sign or verse in the Qur'an or in nature

Primordial Covenant

before God created anything, he informed every soul about his existence


a moral torch

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