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The Second Great Awakening reversed the trends toward religious indifference and rationalism of the late 18th century.
The religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening occurred almost entirely in rural frontier communities.
The Mormon church migrated to the Utah frontier to escape persecution and to establish its tightly organized cooperative social order without persecution.
The primary purpose for establishing taxpayer-supported free public schools was to educate all citizens for participation in democracy, without regard to wealth.
Most practical, hard-working Americans disliked highly educated intellectuals and writers like Ralph Waldo Emerson
Many early American reformers were middle-class idealists inspired by evangelical Protestantism.
The key role of women in American reform movements was under girded by a growing feminization of the churches that spawned many efforts at social improvement.
The Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 was considered most radical for issuing the demand for women's right to vote.
Many of the prominent utopian communities of early nineteenth century involved communal ownership of property and sexual practices different from the conventional norm.
Advances in medicine and science raised the average life expectancy of Americans to nearly 60 years by 1850.
The Knickerbocker group of American writers sharply criticized the militant nationalism and western expansionism that followed the War of 1812.
Although it rejected most Americans' materialism and focus on practical concerns, transcendentalism strongly reflected American individualism, love of liberty, and hostility to formal institutions and authority.
Ralph Waldo Emerson taught the doctrines of simple living and nonviolence, while his friend Henry David Thoreau emphasized self-improvement and the developement of a uniquely American scholarship.
The works of Walt Whitman, such as Leaves of Grass, revealed his love of democracy, the frontier, and the common people.
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