Like this study set? Create a free account to save it.

Sign up for an account

Already have a Quizlet account? .

Create an account


beliefs and attitudes that provide directions for everyday living


beliefs we hold about what constitutes right conduct. Moral principles adopted by groups & indiv to provide rules for right conduct.


concerned with right and wrong conduct. Involves and evaluation of actions based on cultural context.

Aspirational ethics

highest standards of thinking and conduct professional counselors seek. Requires more than just meeting the letter of the ethics codes.

Mandatory ethics

counselors act within minimal standards acknowledging the basic "must" and "must nots"

Community Standards

Also referred to as "mores." Ultimately become the legal criteria for determining whether practitioners are liable for damages. Reasonable behavior.


has a relationship with ethical behavior. Possible to practice unprofessionally yet not be unethical.


infractions whether minor or major.

Principle ethics

set of obligations that focus on moral issues. Focus on acts and choices. Ask the question: What shall I do? Is this situation illegal?

Virtue ethics

focuses on character traits of the counselor and non obligatory ideals which the professional aspires. Am I doing what is best for my client?

Four core virtues

prudence, integrity, respectfulness, and benevolence.


freedom of clients to be self-governing within their social and cultural framework.


refraining from actions considered harmful to clients


doing good to others and promoting the well being of clients. Also, doing good for society.


to be fair giving equally to others and to treat others justly.


professionals make realistic commitments and keep these promises. Fulfilling one's responsibility of trust in a relationship.


truthfulness. Practitioner's obligation to deal honestly with clients.


taking adequate care of ourselves so that we can make good moral decisions.

Feminist Model for making ethical decisions

involves maximum involvement of clients in stage. Power should be equalized in the therapeutic relationship

Social Constructive Model for making decisions

focuses on the social aspects. Interactive. Involves negotiating, consensualizing, and arbitrating.

Transcultural Intergrative Model for making decisions

focuses on the need to include cultural factors

Reasonable Person Standard

ask the question what would a professional in your community with 3 years of experience do in this situation

Informal Peer Monitoring

watching out for each other as professionals

Therapeutic Persons

a willingness on the part of the counselor to practice what he/she preaches.

Experiential Learning

a part of counseling programs that provides students with the opportunity to share their values, life experiences and personal concerns with a peer group.


projections by the therapists that distort the way they perceive and react to a client


process whereby clients project onto their therapists past feelings and attitudes they had toward significant people in their lives. Origin is in childhood


The "unreal" relationship therapy


an event or series of events that leads to strain

empathy fatigue

a form of stress. themes of loss, grief, traumatic stress. happens when stories mirror their own.


a state of physical, emotional, intellectual, & spiritual depletion. Feelings of hopelessness and helplessness.

therapist decay

a long process that leads to burnout


presence of a chronic illness and/or severe psychological depletion.


is ongoing, preventative activity for mental health workers

value neutrality

the idea that therapists can and should keep their values out of therapy

value imposition

the counselor directly attempting to influence a client to adopt their values, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors


a process of looking at all the potential influences on a client's problem

Rational Suicide

a person has made the decision to end his/her life because of extreme suffering involved with terminal illness.


providing a person with the means to die. Person self-administers lethal drug

Hastened death

Speeding up the death process by withholding or withdrawing treatment or life support

Advance directives

decisions a person makes about the end-of-life care

Codes of Ethics

provide general standards/guidelines


study of right and wrong

Jean Piaget

child cognitive development

Lawrence Kohlberg

moral development

Erik Erikson

psychosocial stages of development

William G. Perry

adolescent/young adult cognitive development

Daniel Levinson

mid-life crisis

Sigmund Freud


Harry Harlow

Rhesus monkey studies with with wire vs. terry cloth mother

Konraz Lorenz


John Bowlby

attachment & bonding

Harry Stack Sullivan

interpersonal theory

Lev Vygotsky

social developmental theory of learning

Gerald Caplan

mental health consultation model

Edward Schein

doctor-patient consultation model

Carl G. Jung

analytic psychology

Alfred Adler

individual psychology

Eric Berne

transactional analysis

Viktor Frankl


Rollo May


Carl R. Rogers


Fritz Perls


William Glasser

reality therapy

Ivan Pavlov

classical conditioning

B.F. Skinner

operant conditioning

Don Meichenbaum

stress innoculation

Aaron Beck

cognitive therapy

Albert Ellis

rational emotive behavioral therapy

Arnold Lazarus

multimodal therapy

Salvador Minuchin

structural family therapy

Virginia Satir

conjoint family therapy

Jay Haley

strategic family therapy

Murray Bowen

family systems therapy

Michael White

constructivist therapy

John B. Watson

father of behaviorism

Abraham Maslow

hierarchy of needs

Steve DeShazer

solution-focused therapy

Frank Parsons

father of guidance

E.G. Williamson

trait-factor approach/Minnesota viewpoint

Nathan Ackerman

psychoanalytic family therapy

Ann Roe

career fields & levels

A.A. Brill

career - ego defense mechanisms (sublimation)

John Holland

career - personality approach (RIASEC)

Donald Super

career - developmental approach (life stage structure, developmental tasks, career patterns, career rainbow)

John O. Crites

career maturity

Leon Festinger

cognitive dissonance

George Gazda

formed ASGW Assoc. for Specialists in Group Work (division of ACA) (1970s)
group leadership influences members/aggressive leaders= group casualitiesdevelpmtal group counseling to teach basic life skills (1980s)

definition of a group

collection of 2 or more individuals
meet in face2face interaction
awareness of belonging to group
purpose to achieve mutually agreed-on goals

group work

to reach their mutual goals, which may be intrapersonal, interpersonal, or work related.
The goals of the group may include:
the accomplishment of tasks related to work, education, personal development, personal and interpersonal problem solving, or remediation of mental and emotional disorders.

Purpose of group before 1900s

primarily to distribute information to immigrants, poor, & those mental challenges

moral therapy

philosophy of treatment that emphasized treating mentally ill people with compassion and understanding, rather than shackling them in chains (before 1900s)

Jane Addams

social worker and leader in the settlement house movement; she founded Hull House in 1889 (Forerunner to T-groups) which helped improve the lives of poor immigrants in Chicago, used to help them understand selves & environment. Now is known as group social work

Joseph Pratt

Boston physician, formed the first formal not education/task but counseling/therapy group 1905-1923; formed group with issues of tuberculosis

Jesse Davis

the principal of Grand Rapids High School in Michigan designed 1st children's group to stress the funtionality of a group as an environment in which students learn life skills, values, & citizenship. 1907

Army Alpha and Beta intelligence test

psychological group test (1909-1919)
groups were used to treat fatigued soldier

J. M. Levy

actually Jacob Moreno published paper on group methods under that name, stressed the psychoanalytic/social psychological perspectives of individuals working together

collective counseling

Adler (1920) child guidance group in Vienna, group approach to understand child's problem were related to family issues

Jacob Moreno

WWII produced shortage of counselors in US hence term 'group therapy' & 'group psychotherapy' (1931),
father of psychodrama (1920s), found that individuals involved in theatric productions w/o scripts (role-play) had cathartic reaction (curative): "act out feelings"
founder, American Society of Group Psychotherapy & Psychodrama (ASGPP) (1940s)


Alcoholic Anonymous (AA) formed
group guidance & educational publications increased
"guidance hour" in schools to establish friendly relationships, discover needs & abilities, & develop right attitude toward home, school, & community
group work recognized as a specialty


Trigant Burrow (leader) studied how social forces affect behavior, stressing biological & interactive principles of group behavior (phylo) (1930s)
beginning of psychoanalytic group therapy

Samuel Slavson

Originally an engineer, but eventually developed group therapy using play therapy.
Founder of American Group Psychotherapy Association (AGPA)

Kurt Lewin

Is credited with the term 'group dynamics'
his approach field theory ( interaction btwn individuals & their environment) interested in what motivated individuals. (1940s)
help establish basic skills training group which evolved to T-groups (training groups)
applied feedback to group work
Gestalt psychologists "here & now"
group discussions superior to individual instruction for changing people's ideas & behavior

Wilfred Bion

focused on group cohesiveness and group dynamics that promoted the progression of a group.
broke away from Freud such as family is basic group
characterized emotional patterns as work group "W" or basic assumption "BA" anti-work group (1940s)

Rudolph Dreikurs

Adler's student, first to discuss the use of group therapy in private practice; also introduced Adlerian principals to the treatment of children - parent groups

John Bell

treated family as strangers in group therapy
open discussion to solve family problem

Virginia Satir

was often empathic with the family. She identified five styles of relating with a family. To explore relationships within the family, she used techniques such as family sculpting and taking a family life chronology. (1950s)

Nathan Ackerman

The theory of psychodynamic family counseling, was concerned with the internal feelings and thoughts of each individual as well as the dynamics between then. Prior to Ackerman, it was considered inappropriate to include family members in analytic treatment sessions.
cure dysfunction (1950s)

Gregory Bateson

known for seeing families in similar ways to machines

encounter groups

Carl Rogers personal growth groups emphasizes personal development (1970s)
also sensitivity group focuses on individual's awareness of emotions & behavior of others

total quality group

work groups in Japan to address quality issues (1950s)

marathon group

help individuals to become more honest, real, genuine w/self George Bach & Fred Stoller (1960s)

Esalen Institute

Institute established in the 1960s to explore human potential Fritz Perls - Gestalt therapy in group setting

Eric Berne

father of Transactional Analysis (TA) - who put Freud in everyday lingo with Parent ego [Superego], filled with shoulds, oughts, and musts to guide morality. (1960s)

William Schutz

illustrated through group work those individuals can take care of their interpersonal needs for inclusion, control, and affection through groups and stressed the use of nonverbal communication such as touching or hugging in groups. (1960s)

Jack Gibb

studied competitive & cooperative behaviors as contagious in groups; behavior in 1 sparks behavior in others (1960s)

Yalom 11 Curative Factors (1971)

-Imparting information
-Installation of hope
-Corrective reenactment
-Development of social interaction techniques
-Imitative behaviors
-Interpersonal learning
-Existential factors
-Group cohesion


Irving Janis created the term to emphasize the detrimental power that groups may exert over member to force them to conform (1971)

general (group) system theory

James Durkin (1980s) examines how circular causality (systemically) as opposed to linear causality (cause &effect) can be used in groups

Decade of Ethics

1980s Code of Ethics drafted & formed then revised in 1989

dialectic behavior therapy

Marsha Linehan (1990s) CBT therapy involves skills training in problem-solving techniques, emotional regulation, and interpersonal skills; relatively new treatment for borderline personality disorder and related conditions involving dysregulation and impulsivity

cooperative learning groups

a method of instruction that has students working together in groups, usually with the goal of completing a specific task. (1990s)

focus groups

small groups of people (representative sample) brought together to talk about issues or candidates. (1990s) Too small to provide estimates of public opinion, but they are useful for testing the appeal of ads, terms, slogans, ect.

group leader training

focus on intentional modeling
identifying critical incidents for members
examining event & member reaction
deriving meaning & self-understanding from events
applying new understanding towards personal change

3 primary contact groups

group guidance: preventive & growth engendering
group counseling: preventive, growth, & remedial
group psychotherapy: remedial
Gazda states group move on continuum

TRAC model

delineates group process & management and types of specialty groups
nature of management (x-axis): facilitation to leadership
nature of group process (y-axis): task achievement to process enhancement

TRAC model quadrants

Contacting: process & catalytic function
Acquiring: access & expansion of info and awareness
Relating: restructure/rehearsal new behavior
Tasking: control, efficiency, achievement

Johari Window

A model of mutual understanding that encourages disclosure and feedback to increase our own open area and reduce the blind, hidden, and unknown areas.

Johari Window Quadrants

I. Open: info known to self & others
II. Hidden: info known to self & not others
III. Blind: unknown to self & know by others
IV. Unknown: unknown to self & others

psychoeducation groups

education is treatment & perceptions may change
these groups provide education and skill building for growth and prevention, management, and remediation of problems.
structured by central theme/particular population
used in schools & community and by social services, mental health agencies, and universities,

counseling groups

focus on interpersonal process and problem-solving strategies that stress conscious thoughts, feelings, and behavior.
remedial, mild, & situational problems
outcome: growth & development, self-awareness
leader emphasizes "here & now" and encourages growth, helps set goals & create plan to obtain

psychotherapy group

It is depth-oriented remedial and rehabilitative for more serious problems. It is supportive, reconstructive, involves depth analysis, is analytical, focuses on the unconsious, emphasis on neurotics and serve emotional problems, and is long term.
reconstruct personality or character of members
lead by a professional with advanced training.

personal growth group

sometimes referred to as support groups, aim to help members cope with particular difficulties.
developmental issues that arise in transitions
less focused on personality of individuals
short-term and intensive for personal growth
leader technique increase open communication, increase emotional experience and self-awareness

self-help group

Leaderless or nonprofessionally guided groups in which members assist each other with a specific problem, voluntary groups of people who share the same problem (overheating, gambling, drug addiction, etc)
- Members meet regularly, often with a therapist present to:
- Discuss problems
- Share solutions
- Give and receive support (ex: Alcoholics Anonymous)

task facilitation group

focuses on training & consciousness raising
help members develop skills to interact effectively w/ others in task-oriented interpersonal settings
leader techniques to increase self-awareness as it relates to sensitivity to others improve functioning
tasks center around problem-solving & decision making

closed group

Shuts its gates after the start of therapy (or after 1-3 sessions). Often these groups are brief therapy groups. Meet weekly for 6 month or less. Long term closed groups mostly in prisons, etc.
promotes cohesiveness

open group

New members can join after the group begins, allows for more group stability. Disadvantage is groups members that are added late miss some information or experiences.

ideal length of session

1.5 hours, even if critical issues being discussed (for adults). Longer than this people lose attention span/fatigue group members. Children's groups should be shorter and meet more frequently (1hr)

ideal size of group

6-8 members, could be less with elementary aged children (3-4)

group dynamics

the forces operating in groups that affect the way members relate to and work with one another. the process through which inputs are translated into outputs, influences individual behavior.
Lewin thought that many factors contribute to it

ideal group duration

6-16 sessions (shorter for children)

group content

information within and purpose of the group

group process

Refers to interaction (verbal & non-verbal) between the group members. Also includes the different roles that people assume in a group.
As the group develops more time is spent on process than content.

7 types of group processes

contagion, conflict , anxiety, consensual validation, universality, family reenactment, instillation of hope


an emotional/physical reaction from the group, one member cries other members cry, the communication of an attitude or emotional state among a number of people


all groups experience it; depends on how leader handle it makes a difference

consensual validation

checking one's behavior with others; done by questioning, confronting, & affirming individually or with a group


two or more members develop a group within a group

factors in preplanning a group

• clarifying of purpose: what is the group to accomplish
• group setting: an environment that's quiet, comfortable
•time & size: how long & how many
•membership: heterogeneous or homogeneous
•goals: expected or planned outcomes
•commitment: voluntary or mandatory
•openness: consideration of new ideas & actions
•risk taking: willingness to engage new thoughts & behaviors
•attitudes: how members & leaders perceive tasks & others

See more

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

Voice Recording