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Fluency Disorders Test 1
Terms in this set (41)
List several developmental variables that may stress fluency
Speech & Language Development
List 3 environmental stressors which are thought to negatively impact fluency
Parents-language complexity, talking fast, too many questions, display speech
Speech and language environment
What is display speech?
When a parent says something like "Tell so and so what we did today."
List 3 life stressors that may increase disfluency
death of family member
birth of a sibling
major life events that cause extra stress
Do life stressors impact change for natural recovery?
Capacities and demands theory
Disfluencies and real stuttering emerge when a child's capacities for fluency are not equal to speech performance demands.
Capacities and demands that could influence a child's fluency
Cognitive capacity- If the demands (speech, emotional, fine motor, social, gross motor) exceed cognitive capacity stuttering can result. If Developmental/environmental factors exceed constitutional factors the could result in stuttering.
Given what we know about developmental stuttering, list 5 questions to ask in assessment.
1) Is there a family history of stuttering and was it persistent? (Family tree)
2) What was the onset and progression?
3) What are some examples of your child's stuttering?
4) Any life events at onset?
5) What is the child's reaction?
6) What's parent's reaction on a 1-10 scale?
What is a concerning progression?
3 facts you'd tell a high school or middle school student?
Local support groups
You're not alone
You don't stutter because you're a nervous person
Educate them about stuttering
Normal disfluencies + pauses and interjections of "uh", what is going on?
Escape behaviors, if tense this indicates it could not be a typical disfluency
What accounts for variations to developmental levels of stuttering by Dr. Guitar?
Energy level, fatigue, excitement, life factors, growth spurt, reactions, self-image
Major secondary behavior that differentiates the intermediate from beginning stutterer?
Example escape behaviors
eye blinks, increasing pitch, increasing loudness
List several brain structural and functional differences in people who stutter?
Less dense white matter in left hemisphere and more in right
Reduced volumes of grey matter around Broca's area and bilateral temporal lobe areas
Greater activity in right hemisphere
Slower overall processing
Plantum temporale is same size on both sides, but it should be bigger on the left
Tempermental differences in people who stutter
More sensitive, reactive emotionally, behaviorally inhibited
Connection between atypical hemispheric localization and effects of emotion on fluency
Left hemisphere regulates exploration and action
Right hemisphere regulates avoidance and withdrawal
People who stutter have more activation in right hemisphere, so more susceptible to emotional arousal
Current findings about genetic transmission of stuttering
We are closer to identifying chromosomes and genes that may interact and cause stuttering
Indisputable genetic component
60% or more have a family member who stuttered
Twin studies- 10 out of 16 both stutter, aka genetics + environment
Nature vs Nurture
Nurture= Any other influencing factors
Average age of onset
Typical sequence of types of disfluencies
Repetitions -> Prolongation -> Blocks (around age 6)
Normal disfluency: Core behaviors
10 or fewer disfluencies per 100 words, one-unit repetitions, mostly repetitions, interjections, and revisions
Normal disfluency: Secondary behaviors
Normal disfluency: Feelings and Attitudes
Normal disfluency: Underlying Processes
Stresses of speech/language and psychosocial development
Borderline stuttering: Core behaviors
11 or more disfluencies per 100 words, more than two units in repetitions, more repetitions and prolongations than revisions or interjections
Borderline stuttering: Secondary behaviors
Borderline stuttering: Feelings and attitudes
Generally not aware, occasional frustration or surprise
Borderline stuttering: Underlying processes
Stresses of speech and language and psychosocial development interacting with constitutional predisposition
Beginning stuttering: Core behaviors
Rapid, irregular, and tense repetitions may have fixed articulatory posture in blocks
Beginning stuttering: Secondary behaviors
Escape behaviors such as eye blinks, increases in pitch, or loudness as disfluency progresses
Beginning stuttering: Feelings and attitudes
Aware of disfluency, may express frustration
Beginning stuttering: Underlying Processes
Conditioned emotional reactions causing excess tension, instrumental conditioning resulting in escape behaviors
Intermediate stuttering: Core behaviors
Blocks in which sound and airflow are shut off
Intermediate stuttering: Secondary behaviors
Escape and avoidance behaviors
Intermediate stuttering: Feelings and Attitudes
Fear, frustration, embarrassment, shame
Intermediate stuttering: Underlying Processes
Conditioned emotional reactions causing excess tension, instrumental conditioning resulting in escape behaviors, AND Avoidance conditioning
Advanced stuttering: Core behaviors
Long, tense blocks, some with tremor
Advanced stuttering: Secondary behaviors
Escape and avoidance behaviors
Advanced stuttering: Feelings and attitudes
Fear, frustration, embarrassment, and shame, negative self-concept
Advanced stuttering: Underlying processes
Conditioned emotional reactions causing excess tension, instrumental conditioning resulting in escape behaviors, avoidance conditioning, AND cognitive learning
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