99 terms

APUSH Chapter 20 and 21

Abraham Lincoln
President of the United States at the beginning of the Civil War; was inaugurated after seven states had already seced
Fort Sumter
Fort located in Charleston that still flew the American flag when Lincoln took office
General Winfield Scott
commander of the army that expressed the common sentiment that the South should be allowed to part
city that replaced Montgomery as the Confederate capital
West Virginia
"mountain white" area that illegal tore itself from Virginia in 1861
Border States
slave states left in the Union at the beginning of the Civil War
Butternut region
area of southern Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois where an antislavery war would have been very unpopular
brother's war
term that describes the Civil War because each region sent people to fight for the other side; for example two brothers could be fighting on opposite sides against each other
General Robert E. Lee
important military leader of the Confederate Army who was actually offered the command of the Northern armies by Lincoln but turned him down when his home state of Virginia seceded
Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson
Lee's chief lieutenant who was a gifted tactical theorist and master of speed and deception
"rebel yell"
famous war cry of the Confederate Army
"Billy Yank"
ordinary Union soldier
"Johnny Reb"
typical Confederate soldier
"cotton famine"
shortage of cotton in Britain about 1 1/2 years after the blockades began that cost many Britons their means
Trent affair
The incident in which a Union warship stopped a British steamer and removed two Confederate diplomats
A ship built by the British. Not originally built to be a war ship but in 1862 the confederates gave it a crew and weapons. It captured over sixty union vessels before it accepted a challenge from a union cruiser in 1864 off the coast of France.
French viceroy who takes over Mexico during Civil War due to fact that America cannot enforce monroe doctrine
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America
Edwin Stanton
Secretary of War under Lincoln who criticized him often
habeas corpus
The legal protection that prohibits the imprisonment of a subject without demonstrated cause.
three-hundred-dollar men
men who paid a three hundred dollar fine or hired someone to fight in their place in the draft
Morrill Tariff Act
This was an act passed by Congress in 1861 to meet the cost of the war. It raised the taxes on shipping from 5 to 10 percent however later needed to increase to meet the demanding cost of the war. This was just one the new taxes being passed to meet the demanding costs of the war. Although they were still low to today's standers they still raked in millions of dollars.
Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war (plural)
Jay Cooke and Company
private banking house through which the national treasury marketed its bonds
group of people that rushed to Pennsylvania when petroleum was discovered there in 1859
"government girls"
ladies in Washington who filled jobs left in D.C. when the men went to fight
Elizabeth Blackwell
America's first female physician who helped organize the US Sanitary Commision
Clara Barton
Nurse during the Civil War; started the American Red Cross
Dorothea Dix
superintendent of nurses for union army
Sally Tompkins
ran a Richmond infirmary for wounded Confederate soldiers
Bull Run
battle where Lincoln's armies sought an easy victory at Manassas Junction but were defeated by Stonewall's armies
George B. McClellan
commander of the Army of the Potomac
Pinkerton's Detective Agency
McClellan's source for information on the enemy
"Little Mac"
McClellan's nickname
Seven Day's Battle
series of attacks launched by Lee from June 26th to July 2nd 1862
number of years that a Confederacy presidency lasts
Anaconda Policy
battle plan drawn up by Winfield Scott to isolate Southern trade
Emancipation Proclamation
issued by Lincoln that freed the slaves in the Confederacy, but not in the Border states; really didnt do anything because the slaves were out of Lincoln's jurisdiction
balance of power
the hope that in a war both sides will be equal in power and resources
moral suasion
persuading people into action based on morales
martial law
military rule and police power
a final proposition whose refusal will lead to the end of negotiations
an ambiguity (especially one in the text of a law or contract) that makes it possible to evade a difficulty or obligation
a unit of military organization
(law) the hearing and determination of a dispute by an impartial referee agreed to by both parties (often used to settle disputes between labor and management)
the act of setting something aside for specific use
based on or subject to individual discretion or preference or sometimes impulse or caprice
a proportional share or part
a government issued certificate with interest
the acquisition of gain in dishonest or questionable ways
one who makes what is considered an unreasonable profit
Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri
border states in alphabetical order
"Old Fuss 'n Feathers"
nickname of Winfield Scott
Scott's Great Snake
another name for the Anaconda Plan
Ulysses S. Grant
skilled general of the Union who eventually became President
Pickett's Charge
July 3rd General Pickett led 15,000 troops across open field at Gettysburg
Union victory giving them control of the Mississippi River
George Meade
Union leader at Gettysburg
largest battle in the Western Hemisphere
port in the Bahamas that was a popular rendezvous point for blockade running
wooden US warship that was plated with iron railroads and had its name changed to the Virginia
tiny Union ironclad
battle in Maryland won by the Union won only because Lee's plans were found; Lincoln used the victory to deliver his Emancipation Proclamation
Thirteenth Amendment
outlawed slavery
54th Regiment
Union squadron composed of black men
Fort Pillow
fort where black Union soldiers were massacred after surrendering
General A.E. Burnside
replaced McClellan as commander of the Army of the Potomac
Port Hudson
the last standing Southern bastion on the Mississippi
side of the civil war supported by the Five Civilized Tribes
naval blockade
the effective Northern effort to strangle the Southern economy and de-throne "King Cotton"
Laird rams
ironclad warships tha were kept out of Confederate hards by Minister Adams's stern protests to the British government
provision established by Congress in 1863, after volunteers ran out, that provoked violent protest in Northern cities
"bounty jumpers"
slippery northern men who collected fees for enlisting in the Union army and then deserted
medical occupation that gained new status and employment oppurtunities because of women's Civil War service
National Banking system
financial arrangement set up by the federal government to sell government bonds and stabilize the currency
"shoddy millionaires'
scornful term for Northern manufacturers who made quick fortunes out of selling cheaply made shoes and other inadequate goods to the U.S. Army
U.S. Sanitary Commission
organization developed to provide medical supplies and assistance to Union armies in the field
French dictator who ignored the Monroe Doctrine by intervening in Mexican policies
Charles Francis Adams
American envoy whose shrewd diplomacy helped keep Britain neutral during the Civil War
New York City
site of largest Northern antidraft riot in 1863
side of an army that is vulnerable to attack
troops stationed at a fortress designed for its defense
Peninsula Campaign
3 sided attack on Richmond planed by McClellan
Andrew Johnson
Lincoln's vice presidential running mate in 1864
city where the Battle at Bull Run took place
Unconditional Surrender
nickname of Ulysses S Grant
Northern Democrats who opposed the Civil War and sympathized with the South
A Man Without A Country
Edward Everett Hale's story of treason and banishment inspired by the wartime banishing of Copperhead Clement Vallandigham
Georgia city captured and burned by Sherman
Union party
the temporary 1864 colition of Republicans and War Democrats that backed Lincoln's re-election
Ford's Theater
Washington site where Lincoln was assasinted by Booth on April 14, 1865
Appomattox courthouse
Virginia site where Lee surrendered to Grant in April 1865
Lost Cause
romantic name given to the Southern fight for independence, indicating nobility despite defeat
William T Sherman
ruthless Northern general who waged a march through Georgia
Salmon P. Chase
Ambitious secretary of the treasury who wanted to replace Lincoln as president in 1864
The Wilderness
site of one of Grant's bloody battles with the Confederates near Richmond in 1864
John Wilkes Booth
fanatical acotr whose act of violence actually harmed the South; shot Lincoln
Clement Vallandigham
notorious copperhead convicted of treason whoe ran for governor of Ohio while exiled to Canada
Cold Harbor
major battle by Grant fought close to Confederate capital