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Mitosis results in the formation of two genetically identical daughter cells. This is because
all the genetic material is duplicated then segregated equally to the daughter cells.
The correct order of the phases of the cell cycle?
G1 -> S -> G2 -> M
The division of the cytoplasm is called
Which of the following represents the correct order of the phases of mitosis?
prophase -> metaphase -> anaphase -> telophase
What happens at the end of cytokinesis
At the end of cytokinesis there are two daughter cells with a normal complement of diploid genetic material.
what stage of the cell cycle do most cells spend the majority of their lives?
During the G2 phase, the cell is preparing for mitosis. Using your knowledge of cellular organelles and molecules, which molecule is produced in the highest quantity during the G2 phase?
he microtubule protein, tubulin
Life is a _____ in which cells are formed by _________.
continum; the division of preexisting cells.
what is the cell cycle ?
A series of events that leads to cell division
Most bacterial cells reproduce via what ?
what is cytogenetics?
The field of genetics that involves the microscopic examination of chromosomes
What happens when a cell is divided?
the chromosome becomes more tightly compacted, a process that decreases their apparent length and increases their diameter.
A photographic representation of the chromosomes In an actively dividing cell.
The two duplicated chromatids that are still joined to each other after DNA replication.
what type of information is learned from a karyotype?
by studying many species scientist have discovered that Eukaryotic chromosomes occur in sets. Each set is composed of several different types of chromosomes.
How are chromosomes numbered?
Largest chromosomes have the smallest number.
A distinct pair of chromosomes that are different in Males and Females. i.e. (XX and XY).
All of the chromosomes found in the cell nucleus of Eukaryotes except for sex chromosomes.
how many autosomes do humans have?
Refers to cells containing two sets of chromosomes; designated as 2N.
Any similarity that is due to common ancestry
What are the phases of the eukaryotic cell?
what phases are in interphase?
G1, S, and G2
what is interphase?
Cells grow and copy its chromosomes in preparation for cell division
A phase in which cells exit the cell cycle and postpone making the decision to divide.
Each chromosome is replicated to form a new pair of sister chromatids. When complete has twice as many chromatids as the G1 phase.
A cell synthesizes the proteins necessary for chromosome sorting and cell division. Some cell growth may occur.
1. Mitosis and then generally followed by
In Eukaryotes, the process in which nuclear cell division results in two nuclei, each of which receives the same compliment of chromosomes.
the division of the cytoplasm to produce two distinct daughter cells
for a cell that divides in 24 hours how long will it spend in each phase?
G1 phase- 11 hours
s phase - 8 hours
G2 phase- 4 hours
M phase- 1 hour
A protein responsible for advancing a cell through the phases of the cell cycle by binding to a cyclin - dependent kinase.
(CDK) A protein responsible for advancing a cell through the phases of the cell cycle. Its function depends on the binding of the cyclin.
Why is it called cyclin?
Because it rises and falls during the cell cycle
How do checkpoint proteins prevent cancer?
By checking the integrity of the genome. If abnormalities in DNA structure are detected or if a chromosome is not properly attached to the spindle, the check point will delay cell division until the problem is fixed. If it cannot be fixed, the check point will inmate the process of apoptosis; thereby killing a cell that may harbor mutations. This prevents proliferation of cells that have the potential to be cancerous.
how many check points are there? and what are their names and purposes?
1. G1 checkpoint- determines if cells are in proper condition to divide. Can also sense if DNA incurred damage.
2. G2 checkpoint- Also checks for damage to DNA and makes sure all DNA has been replicated. Also monitors the protein levels needed to progress to metaphase.
3. Metaphase checkpoint- Senses the integrity of the spindle apparatus; if not properly attached it will stop the cell cycle.
what are the 4 phases in the cell cycle of a Eukaryotic cell?
G1, S, G2, M
what is does a micrograph do ?
It shows that the alignment of chromosomes from a given cell is called a karyotype
eukaryotic cells are inherited in _____?
what is a diploid cell?
as two sets of chromosomes
what is a homolog
the members of each pair of chromosomes.
what is necessary for cells to progress through the cell cycle?
the interaction of cyclin and CDK
what do checkpoints do?
sense the environmental conditions and the integrity of the genome and controls whether or not the cell progresses through the cell cycle.
1. A cell that is diploid had :
A. two chromosomes
B. pairs of homologous
C. two sets of chromosomes
D. Both B and c chromosomes
In Eukaryotes, DNA replication produces sister chromatids, this process occurs in which phase of the cell cycle?
A. G1 phase
B. S phase
C. G2 phase
D. M phase
A protein that drives the cell through the cycle is a _______. It is directly controlled by __________.
B.checkpoint protein, cyclin
C.checkpoint protein, CDK
How do mitotic cells divide?
In the process of mitotic cell division, a cell divides to produce two new cells (the daughter cells) that are genetically identical to the original
What is the S phase?
During the S phase, eukaryotic chromosomes are replicated to produce a pair of identical sister chromatids that remain attached to each other
What is mitotic spindle?
The mitotic spindle is network of microbes that plays a central role in chromosome sorting during cell division
What is FtsZ?
FtsZ in bacteria and tubulin in eukaryotes are homologous protein that important in identifying the site where cytokinesis will occur
What is the process of mitosis?
During mitosis, the nucleus of a mother cell divides into two genetically identical nuclei. Mitosis occurs in five phases called prophase, pro metaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
How does cytokinesis occur?
Cytokinesis occurs by a cleavage furrow in a animal cells and by the formation of a cell plate in plants cells
Lets suppose a cell is a diploid, with eight chromosomes per set. How many chromatids would be found in the cell after the S phase, but prior to cytokinesis?
Sister chromatids become attached to spindle fibers during
Sister chromatids separate from each other during
How does meiosis begin?
The process of meiosis begins with a diploid cell and produces four haploid cells with one set of chromosomes each
What occurs during the prophase of meiosis?
During the prophase of meiosis, homologous pairs of sister chromosomes synapse, and crossing over occurs. After crossing over, chiasmata-- the site where crossing over occurs-- become visible
In meiosis 1, crossing over occurs during
The alignment of bivalents occurs during
a) metaphase 1
b) metaphase 2
c) anaphase 1
d) anaphase 2
A type of organism that exhibits alternation of generations is
a) an animal
b) a fungus
c) a plant
d) both b and c
In which phase of the cell cycle are chromosomes replicates?
a) G1 phase
b) S phase
c) M phase
d) G2 phase
e) none of the above
If two chromosomes are homologous, they
a) look similar under microscope
b) have very similar DNA sequences
c) carry the same types of genes
d) may carry different versions of the same gene
e) are all of the above
Checkpoints during the cell cycle are important because they
a) allow the organelle activity to catch up to cellular demands
b) ensure integrity of the cells DNA
c) allow the cell to generate sufficient ATP
for cellular division
d) are the only time DNA replication can occur
e) do all of the above
Which of the following is a reason for mitotic cell division?
a) asexual reproduction
b) games formation in animals
d) all of the above
e) both a and c
A replicated chromosome is composed of
a) two homologous chromosomes held together at the centromere
b) four sister chromatids held together at the centromere
c) two sister chromatids geld together at the centromere
d) four homologous chromosomes held together at the centromere
e) one chromosome with a centromere
Which of the following is not an event of anaphase in mitosis?
a) the nuclear envelope breaks down
b) sister chromatids separate
c) kinetochore microtubes shorten, pulling the chromosomes to the pole
d) polar microbes push against each other pushing the poles farther apart
e) all of the above occur during anaphase
A student is looking at cells under the microscope. The cells are from a organism that has diploid number 14. In one particular case, the cell has seven replicated chromosomes (sister chromatids) aligned at the metaphase plate of the cell. Which of the following statements accurately describes this particular cell?
a) the cell is in metaphase of mitosis
b) the cell is in metaphase of meiosis 1
c) the cell is in metaphase of meiosis 2
d) all of the above are correct
e) both b and c are correct
Which of the following statements accurately describes a difference between mitosis and meiosis?
a) mitosis may produce diploid cells, whereas meiosis produces haploid cells
b) homologous chromosomes synapse during meiosis but do not synapse during mitosis
c) crossing over commonly occurs during meiosis, but it does not commonly occur during mitosis
d) all of the above are correct
e) both a and c are correct
During crossing over in meiosis 1,
a) homologous chromosomes are not altered
b) homologous chromosomes exchange genetic material
c) chromosomal damage occurs
d) genetic information is lost
e) cytokinesis occurs
Aneuploidy may be the result of
a) duplication of a region of chromosomes
b) an inversion of a region of chromosomes
c) nondisjunction during meiosis
d) interspecies bredding
e) all of the above
Harry Weinberg equation
Gene flow is a _____________ event?
when one specie rises more than the other because of a disaster or because of predator ( the raccoons : we would kill the big tail raccoon and so the little tail raccoon will go extinct . THE TINY TAIL RACCOON IS THE BOTTOM NECK EFFECT BECAUSE THEY REPRODUCE
What evidence is necessary to support the idea of "descent with modification" or evolution?
DIVERSITY OF SPCIES (DIFFERENT TYPE OF BIRDS)
SIMILAR TO EACH OTHER DUE TO SIMILAR ENVIRONMENT
WHEN DOGS/HUMANS COMBINE AND REPRODUCE
SAME GENOTYPE (NOT OF THE SAME NO GAYS )
Sex link trait
were one of the original pieces of evidence for genes associating with chromosomes.
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