55 terms

AP Human Geo Unit 1 Test

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place
a specific point on earth, distinguished by particular characteristics.
region
an area of earth defined by one or more distinctive characteristics
Scale
relationship between the portion of earth being studied and earth as a whole. ex. local to global
space
refers to the physical gap or interval between two objects
Connection
refers to relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space.
maps
two dimensional or flat scale model of earth's surface, or a portion of it. Serves as a reference or communication too
cartography
the work of map making
GPS (Global Positioning System)
system that determines the precise position of something on earth. -- using satalites
geotagging
identification and storing of a piece of information by its latitude and longetudes
GIS (Geographic information system)
captures stores and displays geographic data
remote sensing
gathering information long distance (aka a satalite)
mash up
maps that over lays data from multiple sources
map scale
relationship of a features size to map - shown through ratio, written, or graphic
projection
method of transferring locations on earth's surface to a flat map -- is often distorted through shape, distance, relative size, and direction
meridian
longitude -- shows time and is slightly arbitrary
parralel
latitude -- based on the equator
prime meridian
Greenwich, England -- England had the power in the time this was being established
location
a position something occupies the earth surface; place name, site, situation
toponym
name given to a place on earth; may be named for a person, religious connection, ancient history, origin of its settlers, features of the natural enviornment
site
physical character of a place; includes vegetation, climate, weather, water sources, soil, latitude, elevation; affects human settlers; humans modify characteristics of sites
situation
location of a place relative to other place; helps with finding an unfamiliar place, and understanding importance of place;
cultural landcape
combination of cultural features, like language and religion, economic features, and physical features
formal region // uniform region
an area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics
functional region // nodal region
area organized around some focal point or node.
vernacular region // perceptual region
an area people believe exists as part of their cultural identity
culture
the body of customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms that together constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people; relate to what people care about, and what people take care of
spacial associalton
occurs within a region if the distribution of one feature is related to the distribution of other people
Globalization
A force or processes that involves the entire world and results in making something worldwide in scope
Transnational corporation
Conducts research, operates factories and sells products in many countries. For ex. McDonald's and P and G
Distribution
Arrangement of a feature in a space; concentration, density, pattern
Density
The frequency with which something occurs in space
Concentration
If objects are close together: clustered or if they are far appart: dispersed
Pattern
Geometric arrangement of objects in a space
Cultural identity
Influences distribution across space. Ex. Ethnicity, sexuality orientation, gender
Poststructualist geography
How the powerful in a society dominate, seek to control. Space is generally a product of ideologies or ruling elites
Humanistic geography
Emphasizes the different ways that individuals form ideas about a place and give those places symbolic meaning
Behavioral geography
Psychological basis for individual human actions in space
Uneven development
Gap in economic conditions because different rates of globalization in different areas
Assimilation
Process by which a groups cultural features are altered to resemble those of another group
Acculturation
The process of changes in a culture that results from the meeting of two groups
Syncretism
Combination of elements of two groups into a new cultural feature
Hearth
A place from which innovation originates
Relocation difusion
Spread of an idea through physical movement
Expansion diffusion
Spread of a feature from one place to another in an additive process
Contagious diffusion
Rapid wide spread diffusion of a characteristic throughout a population
Stimulus diffusion
Spread of an underlying principal through a characteristic fails to diffuse
Distance decay
The farther away people are, the less they communicate
Space time compression
Reduction of time it takes for something to reach another place
Recourse
A substance in an environment that is useful to people
Sustainablity
Use of things in a way future generations would still have access; affected by enviornment, society, economy
Conservation
Consumed at a much slower rate
Preservation
Maintaining them in their current state
Cultural ecology
Geographic study of human- enviornmental relationships
Enviornmental determinism
Physical enviornmental caused by social development
Possibilism
The physical enviornmental may limit some actions but humans can adjust their environment
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