when assessing the posture, what information should the nurse referr to?
Refer to maternal chart for fetal presentation, position, and type of birth, since newborn readily assumes in the utero position.
When assessing the posture what are average findings for the vertex?
Arms, legs in moderate flexion; fist clench
Do newborns readily extend their extremities?
No, resistance to having extremities extended for examination or measurement, crying possible when attempted.
Describe movement of the newborn?
Normal spontaneous movement bilateral asynchronous (legs flex and extend an alternating fashion) but equal extension in all extremities.
Where will you be able to see visible pulsations in a newborn?
Visible pulsations in left mid clavicular line, fifth intercostal space.
what is the average apical pulse rate in a newborn?
120-140 bpm, apical pulse located in the fourth intercostal space
How do you measure quality of the pulse in the newborn?
the first sound will be the closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves in the second sound will be the closure of the aortic of pulmonic valves. They should be sharp and clear.
What is a normal variation of heart sounds in a newborn?
Murmur, especially over base or at the left sternal border in interspace 3-4 (Foreman ovale anatomically closing at about one year)
should there be any differentiation between peripheral pulses?
No peripheral pulses should be equal and strong.
What is the normal temperature range and what route should you take it newborn?
Temperature should be taken axillary 36.5-37.2°C is normal for newborns. Temperature should stabilize by 8 to 10 hours of age.
Why is it important to count for full minute when assessing the respiratory rate of newborn?
Newborns respirations have a tendency to be shallow and irregular in rate, rhythm, and depth when the infant is awake.
at birth what is the normal systolic and diastolic range for newborns?
60 to 80 mm Hg systolic blood pressure
40 to 50 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure
at 10 days what is the normal range of systolic and diastolic blood pressure for newborns?
95 to 100 mm Hg systolic blood pressure
45 to 75 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure
what is considered acceptable weight loss for newborns within the first 3 to 5 days?
Acceptable weight losses 5% to 10%
what is the relationship between the head circumference and chest circumference within the first two days after birth?
The head and chest circumference are approximately the same.
what characteristics should normal skin present for new borns?
Generally pink, varying with ethnic origin acrocyanosis is common after birth
what is normal findings for voiding within the first 24 hours? what about after 24 hours?
Newborn should void at least once within the first 24 hours. Afterwards they should be voiding 6 to 10 times per day.
What are characteristics of normal female genitalia in newborns?
May be swollen with mucoid discharge. Blood tinged discharge caused by changing estrogen levels is normal.
Identify possible problems that may occur during transition to extrauterine life. Use information presented on the first two slides to support your answer.
Failure to establish respiration on its own. Low O2 levels hypoxia, and cyanosis.
Based on the physiological adjustments that occur in the respiratory system identify the possible problems that may interfere with the establishment of effective respiration.
Cardiovascular structures may not close. Septal defects, open foramen ovale, decrease pulmonary blood flow. Respiratory distress due to fluid in lungs.
how long is the second phase or unresponsive phase in the transitional period of the newborn?
period of inactivity between 60 and 100 min.
when does the third phase of the second period of reactivity in the transitional moments of a newborn occur?
Occurs 4 to 8 hours post birth. Can last between 10 min. and several hours.
What is the range of hemoglobin for newborn infants when compared to an adult?
in infants hemoglobin level is 14 to 24, and adults is usually 11 of 14.
When assessing a male infants penis after birth, what should you do if you cannot retract the foreskin?
Do not retract. This is a normal finding, and they foreskin may not be retractable for 3-4 years
What are normal variations on uncircumcised male infant's foreskin?
White cheesy substance called Smegma, and Small white cysts (epithelial pearls)may be seen @ the tip of the foreskin.