Unit 2 Vocab (all)
Terms in this set (57)
who's the best
people who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership of a social group, or political opinion.
intercontinental migration pattern
permanent move from one continent to another
interregional migration pattern
permanent move from one region of a country to another
rural to urban migration pattern
permanent movement from a agrarian sparsely populated to a densely populated metropolitan area
in human movement and migration studies, a measure of an individual's perceived satisfaction for approval of a place in its social, economic, or environmental attributes.
the space within which daily activity occurs
a diagram of the volume of space and the length of time within which our activities are confined by the restraints of our bodily needs (eating, resting) and the means of mobility at our command.
a model that holds the potential use of a service at a particular location
-is directly related to the number of people in a location
-inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
an environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration
the presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminished the attractiveness of sites farther away.
regular movement; for example: nomadic migration that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally.
change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition
-based on/related to DTM (each stage in DTM corresponds w a stage in the migration transition model)
Standard of Living
-refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available and the way these services and goods are distributed within a population.
-It is generally measured by standards such as income inequality, poverty rate, real (i.e. inflation adjusted) income per person.
-ex: access to certain goods (such as number of refrigerators per 1000 people), or measures of health such as life expectancy.
-It is the easy way by which people living in a country are able to satisfy their wants.
Infant Mortality Rate
number of infants per 1,000 live births who die before reach 1 year of age
diffusion of fertility control
-how fertility rates are lowered
-during the final 2 stages of the DTM
-depend on both successful cultural diffusion of effective methods of birth control and the widespread acceptance of the notion that small families are preferable
-fertility decline became accepted as countries industrialized largely because children were no longer needed to help w/ farm work
branch of medical science concerned with incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people
-epidemiologists use geographic concepts to understand the distribution and method of diffusion of diseases
-one might expect diseases to spread exclusively by contagious diffusion, in fact they spread thru all types: relocation (ex. tourism), hierarchical (ex AIDS in urban areas)
Epidemiological Transition Model
distinctive causes of death in each stage of the DTM
-s1 and s2 are stages of pestilence, famine, infectious and parasitic diseases, and accidents from attacks by other animals and humans
-s3 and s4 are stages of degenerative and human created diseases- ex. heart disease, cancer
-s5 is the reemergence of infectious and parasitic diseases
a disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a high proportion of the population
summarizes the contribution made to regional population change over time by the combination of natural change (diff b/t births(B) and deaths(D)) and net migration (diff b/t in (I) and out-migration(O))
-Formula for population change P1+B-D+I-O=P2; P1=old pop, P2=new pop
a simple measure of the # of economic dependents, old or young, that each 100 people in the productive yrs (15-64) must support. Pop pyramids give quick visual evidence of that ratio
Rate of natural increase
percentage growth of a pop in a yr, computed as CBR-CDR
# of yrs needed to double a pop, assuming a constant rate of NIR
the part of Earth's surface physically suitable for permanent human settlement, the permanently inhabited areas on Earth
# of people in a area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
drake is . . .
Circumstances of too few people to sufficiently develop the resources of a country or region to improve the level the level of its inhabitants.
The number of people an area can support on a sustained basis given the prevailing technology.
Estimation of future population size, age, and sex composition based on current data.
2 main points
1. Gap between population growth and resources is wider in some countries
2. World population growth is outstripping a wide variety of resources. When mortality rates are lowered, need to lower birth rates.
Demographic Momentum/ Population Momentum
The tendency for population growth to continue despite family planning because of the high concentration of people in their childbearing years.
population geography, the study of spatial and ecological aspects of population, including density, distribution, fertility, gender, living standard, health, age, nutrition, mortality, and mobility.
form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location.
Scattered settlements of a particular national group living abroad.
Permanent movement by choice
Permanent migration usually caused by cultural factors.
Migration to a distant destination and it occurs in stages.
Migration because relatives or people of the same nationality previously migrated there.
Permanent movement inside a country
Permanent movement from one country to another
Migrants who set up homes in more than one nation-state
the total number of people divided by the total land area
the number of people per unit of area of arable land
the ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
birth rate (number of live births each year per thousand population)
death rate (number of deaths each year per thousand population)
a dramatic increase in world population since 1900
-the crucial element triggering this explosion has been a dramatic decrease in the death rate (particularly for infants and children) in most of the world
-english economist and cleric
-was the most famous pioneer observer of population growth with the publishing in 1798 of An Essay on the Principle of Population (known as the dismal essay)
-he believed that the human ability to multiply far exceeds our ability to multiply to increase food production
-he maintained that a 'strong and constantly operating check on population' will necessarily act as a natural control on numbers
-he regarded famine, disease, and war as the inevitable outcome of the human population's outstripping the food supply
the process of change in a society's population
-goes from a condition of high birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low birth rate and death rates and low rate of natural increase and higher total population
a curve depicting exponential or geometric growth
the horizontal bending, or leveling, of an exponential or j curve
zero population growth
when the total fertility rate is at 2.1 which is a stabilized population (one that does increase or decrease)
-regions with overwhelmingly young populations (latin america, africa, tropical asia)
-regions with a large percentage of middle aged people (US, europe, japan)
a bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex
a group of individuals who share a common temporal demographic experience
-not necessarily based only on age, but may also be defined based on criteria such as time of marriage or time of graduation
-all individuals in a certain age range
culturally specific notions of what it means to be a man and what it means to be a woman
-closely tied to how many children are produced by couples