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43 terms

Chapter 6 - Ancient Rome and Early Christianity

A substantive list of all things Roman
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republic
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them; In Rome - citizenship with voting rights was granted only to free-born male citizens.
patrician
a member of the aristocratic, noble families who controlled all power in the early years of the Roman Republic
plebian
in ancient Rome, one of the common farmers, artisans, and merchants who made up most of the population
tribunes
official who was elected by the Plebeians to protect their interests and rights from unfair acts of patrician officials.
Scipio
Roman general who commanded the invasion of Carthage in the second Punic War and defeated Hannibal at Zama (circa 237-183 BC)
consul
in the roman republic, one of the two powerful officials elected each year to command the army and direct the government; however their powers were limited - only had a one yr term in office and you could not be re-elected for 10 yrs..also, one consul could veto or override the others decisions.
dictator
In ancient Rome, a political leader given absolute power to make laws and command the army for a limited time (usually about 6 months).They were chosen by the consuls and elected by the Senate.
civil war
a war between two groups in the same country; In Rome, refers to the end of the Republic under the Gracchus Brothers & the following rebellions under Marius and Sulla...this brought Julius Caesar to power.
trimuvirate
a group or three, esp one possessing great power or eminence; in Rome the 1st group was Julius Caesar, Crassus and Pompey in the year 60 BC.
absolute ruler
one who has total power
Pax Romana
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
apostle
These men were the original 12 disciples chosen by Christ to preach his gospels.
Diaspora
the dispersion of the Jews outside Israel; after two rebellions - on in 70 AD at Massada and another in AD 132 - the Jewish state ceased to exist for over 1800 yrs - the Jews were driven from their homeland into exile.
pope
the bishop of Rome and supreme leader of the Roman Catholic Church
heresy
any opinions or doctrines at variance with the official or orthodox position especially in regards to the Roman Catholic Church or any religion's set of sacred beliefs.
inflation
a general and progressive increase in prices coupled with a drastic drop in the value of money.
aqueduct
a structure built by Roman engineers to carry water over long distances to cities & towns
Pompeii
Roman city near Naples, Italy, which was buried during an eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79. which preserved many buildings and art
Tacitus
A Roman historian who presented the facts accurately. He wrote about the good and the bad of imperial Rome in his Annals and Histories.
Virgil
greatest poet of the Golden Age, called the "Homer of Rome" because the Iliad and the Odyssey served as models for his epic, the Aeneid; focus on Patriotism; it took 10 years to write
senate
The aristocratic brach of Rome's govenment. It had both legislative and administrative functions. Its 300 members were chosen from the upper class of Roman society.
legions
large military units of Roman soldiers
Punic Wars
A long struggle between Rome and Carthage over superiority in power, settlement, and trade in the Mediterranean.
Rome
Winner of the Punic Wars
Hannibal
Carthaginian military leader and strategist who attempted to surprise Rome with a land-based attack through the Alps.
Julius Caesar
Roman consul, governor of Gaul, and dictator of Rome.
Caesar's Reforms
Expanding Roman citizenship, creating jobs through public works projects, expanded opportunities for landless people to purchase land, and increased pay for soldiers.
Octavian
Caesar Augustus' real name.
Caesar Augustus
First of the series of emperor's of Rome. He took on the nickname "exalted one." He was Julius Caesar's adopted son.
Jesus
Jewish carpenter who began a religious movement later known as Christianity.
Paul
A Jewish man who spent the beginning of his life persecuting Christians before his conversion to Christianity. He became one of the foremost missionaries spreading Christianity to the Greeks and Romans.
Constantine
This Roman emperor credited a pivotal win in battle to the God of the Christians and afterward announced the end of persecution of the Christians in the Roman Empire.
bishop
One of the hierarchy of Christian leaders in the Church. This particular position is in charge of supervising many priests and churches.
Peter
One of Jesus' apostles. Jesus once refered to him as "the rock on which the church will be built". This man became a bishop in Rome and tradition holds that subsequent bishops of Rome will also be "the rock" or lead bishops within the church.
mercenaries
foreign soldiers recruited to protect the Roman empire.
Diocletian
This Roman emperor divided the empire in two, keeping the western portion for himself, but naming a co-emperor of the east.
Constantinople
The new capital of the Roman empire as designed by Constantine.
Major causes of the decline of the Roman empire
Outside invasions, severe inflation, separation of the Western portion from the Eastern.
Attila
Leader of a strong and united Germanic tribe that attacked the Roman empire and accelerated its decline.
Greco-Roman culture
The culture of the Romans, which mixed Greek, Hellenist, and Roman ideas.
Mosaics
Popular form of Roman art in which pictures or designs were created using many small pieces of tile.
bas-relief
A type of Roman sculpture in which images project from a flat background
Romance languages
After the fall of Rome, many surrounding groups had adopted the Latin language and modified it to fit their needs. These subsequent languages adopted from Latin were later refered to as...