a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them; In Rome - citizenship with voting rights was granted only to free-born male citizens.
a member of the aristocratic, noble families who controlled all power in the early years of the Roman Republic
in ancient Rome, one of the common farmers, artisans, and merchants who made up most of the population
official who was elected by the Plebeians to protect their interests and rights from unfair acts of patrician officials.
Roman general who commanded the invasion of Carthage in the second Punic War and defeated Hannibal at Zama (circa 237-183 BC)
in the roman republic, one of the two powerful officials elected each year to command the army and direct the government; however their powers were limited - only had a one yr term in office and you could not be re-elected for 10 yrs..also, one consul could veto or override the others decisions.
In ancient Rome, a political leader given absolute power to make laws and command the army for a limited time (usually about 6 months).They were chosen by the consuls and elected by the Senate.
a war between two groups in the same country; In Rome, refers to the end of the Republic under the Gracchus Brothers & the following rebellions under Marius and Sulla...this brought Julius Caesar to power.
a group or three, esp one possessing great power or eminence; in Rome the 1st group was Julius Caesar, Crassus and Pompey in the year 60 BC.
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
the dispersion of the Jews outside Israel; after two rebellions - on in 70 AD at Massada and another in AD 132 - the Jewish state ceased to exist for over 1800 yrs - the Jews were driven from their homeland into exile.
any opinions or doctrines at variance with the official or orthodox position especially in regards to the Roman Catholic Church or any religion's set of sacred beliefs.
a general and progressive increase in prices coupled with a drastic drop in the value of money.
Roman city near Naples, Italy, which was buried during an eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79. which preserved many buildings and art
A Roman historian who presented the facts accurately. He wrote about the good and the bad of imperial Rome in his Annals and Histories.
greatest poet of the Golden Age, called the "Homer of Rome" because the Iliad and the Odyssey served as models for his epic, the Aeneid; focus on Patriotism; it took 10 years to write
The aristocratic brach of Rome's govenment. It had both legislative and administrative functions. Its 300 members were chosen from the upper class of Roman society.
A long struggle between Rome and Carthage over superiority in power, settlement, and trade in the Mediterranean.
Carthaginian military leader and strategist who attempted to surprise Rome with a land-based attack through the Alps.
Expanding Roman citizenship, creating jobs through public works projects, expanded opportunities for landless people to purchase land, and increased pay for soldiers.
First of the series of emperor's of Rome. He took on the nickname "exalted one." He was Julius Caesar's adopted son.
A Jewish man who spent the beginning of his life persecuting Christians before his conversion to Christianity. He became one of the foremost missionaries spreading Christianity to the Greeks and Romans.
This Roman emperor credited a pivotal win in battle to the God of the Christians and afterward announced the end of persecution of the Christians in the Roman Empire.
One of the hierarchy of Christian leaders in the Church. This particular position is in charge of supervising many priests and churches.
One of Jesus' apostles. Jesus once refered to him as "the rock on which the church will be built". This man became a bishop in Rome and tradition holds that subsequent bishops of Rome will also be "the rock" or lead bishops within the church.
This Roman emperor divided the empire in two, keeping the western portion for himself, but naming a co-emperor of the east.
Major causes of the decline of the Roman empire
Outside invasions, severe inflation, separation of the Western portion from the Eastern.
Leader of a strong and united Germanic tribe that attacked the Roman empire and accelerated its decline.
Popular form of Roman art in which pictures or designs were created using many small pieces of tile.