Chapter 12 - Empires in East Asia
Tang, Song, Yuan, Shoguns in Japan, Kingdoms in Southeast Asia
Terms in this set (58)
Pronunced 'Sway'. United northern and southern China once again. Restored a strong central government. The dynasty lasted from 581-618 only through two emperors. The Grand Canal was built during empire. The Great Wall was rebuilt. The endless labor of state projects turned the people against this dynasty. Although short-lived it built a strong foundation for the Tang dynasty.
Considered the golden age of Chinese civilization for nearly 300 years (607-907). China grew under the dynasty to include much of eastern Asia, as well as large parts of Central Asia. They expanded the network of roads and canals.
Tang dynasty civil service exam system
Revived and expanded the civil service examination system restoring China's system of scholar-officials. It enabled talent and education to become more important than noble birth in winning power and sharing in China's government. Thus, education and printed materials became important to a larger part of Chinese society.
Second emperor of Tang dynasty (627-649). Murdered two brothers, thrust father aside to take throne. A Strong ruler- his personal name was Li Shimin; great general, war hero; expands China's borders; encourages trade; allows buddhism to spread; let christians and muslims practice.
A wife of Tang Taizong, when he died she became the new emperor's (Taizong' s son) chief wife (empress). At first she held the real power while weak emperors sat on the throne, finally, in 690, she assumed the title of emperor (only woman ever to do so in China) at age 65 and ruled till she was 80. A strong leader who continued the work begun by Taizong. Took over Korea.
Fall of the Tang dynasty
Rising costs of government caused the Tang rulers to impose crushing taxes which caused hardship to the people but failed to cover costs of military expansion and new building programs. Muslim armies defeated the Chinese at the Battle of Talas. As a result China lost Central Asia and entered a period of chaos and disorder. In 907 the Chinese rebels burned the Tang capital at Ch'ang-an and murdered the last Tang emperor, a child.
Pronunced 'sung'. , (960 - 1279 AD); this dynasty was started by Taizu and lasted about 3 centuries. After losing northern China and forced south China never regained the lost lands. China ruled a smaller empire - easier to control which helped China to stay stable, powerful, and prosperous. Population nearly doubled to 100 million with 10 cities of 1 million people each. Most populous country in the world and the most advanced.
Inventions of Tang and Song China
*Printing -Block printing : 700s and Moveable Type: 1040 - most important
*Explosive Powder (gunpowder): fireworks and military - most important
*Advances in Agriculture - improved rice to enable 2 crops a year instead of 1
*Paper Money - replaced metal cash
*Magnetic compass - helped China become a sea power
*Porcelain China dishes
*Landscape black and white paintings
Tang and Song dynasty - Golden Age of Poetry and Art
Tang period produced great poetry and Song period produced new heights of Chinese painting beauty.
Tang dynasty poet who wrote about life's pleasures.
Tang dynasty poet who praised orderliness and Confucian virtues. Also wrote about war and the hardships of soldiers.
Song dynasty Chinese painting
Artist emphasized the beauty of natural landscapes and objects such as a single branch or flower. Didn't use bright colors, black ink was their favorite paint. "Black is ten colors" said one artist.
Blocks of individual characters in a frame to make up a page for printing. Previously, printers had carved the words of a whole page into one large block.
A class of powerful, well-to-do people. During Tang and Song times a new, much larger upper class emerged, made up of scholar-officials and their families. They attained their status through education and civil service positions rather than through land ownership
Levels of Chinese Society - Tang and Song times
3. Urban middle class - merchants, shipkeepers, skilled artisans, minor officials, and others
4. Bottom of urban society - laborers, soldiers and servants
5. lowest - peasants
Status of Women
Subservient to men. In upper classes in cities a woman's work was deemed less important to the family's prosperity and status.
But in peasant families women worked in the fields and helped produce their family's food and income.
Done to upper-class girls, when young their feet were bound tightly with cloth, which eventually broke the arch and curled all but the big toe under. Admiringly called a 'lily-foot'. Crippled for life, but reflected the wealth and prestige of her husband, who could afford such a beautiful but impractical wife.
Mongols of the Asian Steppe
Lived their lives on the move. They prided themselves on their skill on horseback, their discipline, their ruthlessness, and their courage in battle. They also wanted the wealth and glory that came with conquering mighty empires.
Asian Steppe - West and East
A vast belt of dry grassland which served as a land trade route connecting the East and West. Home to normadic peoples who frequently swept down on ther neighbors to plunder, loot and conquer.
This portion of the steppe was home to the Hittites, runs from Central Asia to Eastern Europe
Covers the area of present day Mongolia, first home of the Huns, Turks, and Mongols
Nomadic people who ranged over wide areas and kept herds of livestock on which they depended for food and other items. They followed a familiar seasonal pattern of movement to the same areas.
Steppe nomads who traveled together in kinship groups. The members of each clan claimed to be descended from a common ancestor.
Mongol clan leader originally named 'Temujin' who unified the Mongols by defeating rival clans one by one. He accepted the new name of Genghis Khan which means "universal leader." Driven by revenge and loved conquest. Military and political genius who after conquering northern China abandoned his first goal of conquering all of China and turned his attention to the Islamic region west of Mongolia, where he launched a campaign of terror across Central Asia. Military organization (10,000-man armies), strategy (distraction techniques and trickery), and cruelty (scaring enemies into surrender without even a fight), allowed him to become an unmatched conquerer. Died from illness not violence.
The largest unified land empire in history stretching from China to the Black Sea which was created by Genghis Khan and his successors.
By 1260 the Mongols divided their huge empire into 4 regions, or knanates. A descendant of Genghis ruled each khanate.
The Mongols as rulers
While ferocious in war, they were quite tolerant in peace. They rarely imposed their beliefs or way of life on those they conquered. Some Mongol rulers even adoped aspects of the culture of the people they ruled, even the religion.
The period from the mid-1200s to the mid-1300s, the Mongols imposed stability and law and order across much of Eurasia.. The Mongols guaranteed safe passage from one end of the empire to another. Trade, ideas, and inventions traveled across the empire and to other lands. Possibly the bubonic plague as well!
Mongolian emperor of China and grandson of Genghis Khan who completed his grandfather's conquest of China. He established the Yuan dynasty and united China for the first time in 300 years. He built a great capital on the site of modern Beijing. The fact that he moved his capital from Mongolia to China was a sign that he planned to make his mark as emperor of China.
Kublai Khan united China for the first time in 300 years. For this he is considered one of China's great emperors. The control imposed by the Mongols across all of Asia opened China to greater foreign contacts and trade. Finally, Kublai and his successors tolerated Chinese culture and made few changes to the system of government.
Mongol Rule in China
Outlawed intermarriage between Mongols and Chinese, forbade Chinese from learning Mongol language, brought foreign and Mongol government adminstrators into China and put them in charge, dismissed Confucian scholars, tolerated all cultural and relgious traditions in China
Mongol Achievements in China
Kublai Khan restored the Grand Canal and extended it 135 miles north to Beijing. Built a paved highway along the Grand canal that ran 1.100 miles which ensured the north a steady supply of grain and other goods from the southern heartland.
Foreign Trade increased due to the Pax Mongolica (Mongol Peace)
Italian merchant and traveler who visited at Kublai Khan's court. He served the Great Khan well for 17 years by going to various Chinese cities on government missions. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.
Weakness in Mongol Rule in China
Kublai Khan's heavy spending on fruitless wars, on public works, and on the luxury of the Yuan court burdened the treasury and created resentment among the overtaxed Chinese.
Yuan Dynasty overthrown
After Kublai Khan died in 1294 family members argued over who would rule. In 8 years there were 4 different Khans! Chinese resentment and Mongo humiliation of the Chinese increased. Years of famine, flood, disease, economic problems and official corruption caused rebellion. In 1368 Chinese rebels overthrew the Mongols and founded the Ming dynasty.
Decline of the Mongol Empire
By the time of the collapse of the Yuan Dynasty, the entire Mongol Empire had disintegrated. Only the Golden Horde in Russia stayed in power and ruled Russia for 250 years.
Japan has an island location which is about 120 miles from Korea and 500 miles from China. The Japanese were close enough to feel the civilizing efect of China but far enough away to be reasonably safe from invasion.
Geography of Japan
About 4000 islands make up the Japanese archipelago or island group which extends in an arc more than 1,200 miles long. Most Japanese people live on the 4 largest islands. It is so mountanious that only about 12 percent of the land is suitable for farming. Natural resources such as coal, oil and iron are in short supply. There are typhoons, earthquakes, and tidal waves.
Not a united country, hundreds of clans controlled their own territories. Each clan worshiped its own nature gods and goddesses. Thousands of local gods. Eventually combined to form Japan's earliest religion. Shinto meaning 'way of the gods.'
Based on respect for the forces of nature and on the worship of ancestors. Believed in kami-divine spirits that dwelled in nature. Any unusual or especially beautiful tree, rock, waterfall, or mountain was considered the home of a kami.
Clan that assumed control in the fifth century. They claimed to be descendents of the sun goddess Amaterasu. Eventually, in the seventh century, the claimed themselves as emperors of Japan. They were figure heads only and the power was controlled by various strong clans who ruled in the emperor's name. -borrowed heavily from Chinese during this time period
-used imperial and centralized government
-copied and adapted Chinese art, literature, and writing system
Buddhism in Japan
Brought over by Korean travelers who adopted it in China. In the mid-700s, the Japanese court officially accepted Buddhism. Eventually spread through Japanese society. However, it mixed with Shinto rituals, gods and goodesses.
Cultural borrowing from China
The Japanese adapted Chinese ways from the Tang dynasty to suit their own needs. They learned much but still retained their own traditions. Formed a strong central government but not civil-service system. Japan continued to be a country where a few great families held power. They copied and adapted Chinese art, literature, and writing system
Time Period in Japanese history known for a focus on etiquette and culture. The capital was in Heian. a highly refined court society rose in this time and there were lots of strict rules which dictated every aspect of court life. Everyone at court was expected to write poetry and to paint. The 'Tale of Genji' a long prose writted by Lady Marasaki Shikibu was the world's first novel.
The code governing correct behavior and appearance.
Feudalism erodes Imperial Authority
By the middle of the 11th century the power of the central government and the Fujiwaras (the rich family that held the real power in Japan) began to slip. Large landowners living away from the capital set up private armies. The countryside became lawless and damgerous. For safety farmers and small landowners traded parts of their land to strong warlords in exchange for protection. This was the beginning of a feudal system like ancient China and medieval Europe.
Samurai means 'one who serves'. Loyal bodyguards for the warlords.
'The way of the warrior' Expected to show reckless courage, reverence for the gods, fairness, and generosity toward those weaker than hinself. (Honor, bravery, loyalty) Dying an honorable death was judged more important than living a long life.
'Supreme general of the emperor's army' In effect, the shogun had the powers of a military dictator. The emperor gave the title to the winner of a 30 year war between 2 powerful clans to the Minamoto leader named Yoritomo in 1192.
The Kamakura Shogunate
Following tradition the emperor still reigned from Kyoto (rebuilt on the ruins of Heian, which had been destroyed in war.) However, the real center of power was at the shogun's military headquarters at Kamakura. The pattern of government in which shoguns ruled through puppet emperors lasted in Japan until 1868.
Karmakura shogunate decline
They were strong enough to turn back the two Kublai Khan naval invasions but it drained the treasury. Loyal samurai were not paid and the Kamakura shoguns lost prestige and power.
Southeast Asia and Korea
To the south of China is Myammar, Lao, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore, Brunei and the Philippines. To China's northeast is the Korean peninsula which is currently divided into North and South Korea.
Influence of India and China in Southeast Asia
Indian merchant ships arrived by the first century A.D. Hindu and Buddhist missionaries spread their faiths, kingdoms arose and were modeled on Indian poltical ideas. Indian culture, languages art and religions are evident even today. Chinese ideas and culture spread through migration and trade. Chinese political influence either through direct rule or by demanding tribute from local rulers.
In what is now Cambodia, was for centuries the main power on the Southeast Asian mainland. Improved rice cultivation helped the Khmer become prosperous. They built elaborate irrigation systems and waterways. These advances made it possible to grow 3 or 4 crops of rice a year instead of 1.
At their capital, Angkor, Khmer rulers built extensive city-and-temple complexes. Ankor Wat is one of the world's greatest architectural achievements. The complex, which covers nearly a square mile, was built as a symbolic mountain dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu. The Khmer also used it as an observatory.
Dai Viet (Vietnam)
Was under Chinese domination for over 1000 years and so was least influenced by India. When the Tang dynasty weakended Vietnam managed to break away and became an independent kindowm, Known as Dai Viet, in 939.
Culture was shaped by Chinese influences but also maintained a distinct way of life. Clans or tribes controlled different parts of the country until the Chinese took over and established a military government for about 500 years. Until they were driven out by the Silla kingdom.
Dynasty established by Wang Kon that lasted four and a half centuries. The central government of this dynasty was modeled after China's. It also established a civil-service system--one which was slightly flawed because the sons of nobles were given the best positions despite examinations, and no upward mobility was possible. This period produced great cultural achievements for the Korean culture (art, blocks for printing Buddhist scriptures, etc.).
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