a popular cognitive approach emphasizing the organization of the cognitive infrastructure of the brain as comprising a series of highly specified modules, including modules for various aspects of language processing. A modularity perspective of language views it as an innate capacity localized to domain-specific processors that are encapsulated in their functions from other processors. To say that language is localized means the modules composing the language system each operate by using a dedicated neural system. The concept of encapsulization means the processors operate independently of one another. Thus, language modules operate independently to perform dedicated functions, yet can interact with one another at higher levels to produce combinations of functions. Because language modules operate independently, different types of input drive language development forward in different areas (e.g., the lexicon, syntax, morphology)
Because modularity theory stipulates separate areas of language can develop independently of one another, it has implications for understanding language development. This phenomenon is most obvious in children who have an impairment in one or more language areas (e.g., receptive language, expressive language)
Language is organized in highly specific modules in the brain.
Language modules perform dedicated functions but can interact with one another to produce combinations of functions.
Syntactic bootstrapping describes the process by which children use the syntactic frames surrounding unknown verbs to successfully constrain or limit the possible meanings of the verbs. This theory is a nature-inspired account of language development focused specifically on syntactic development. Syntactic bootstrapping is a nature-inspired language-development theory because it proposes children arrive at the task of language learning with knowledge of syntactic categories and use this knowledge to understand the meanings of words that fill various positions in sentences.
With semantic bootstrapping, children deduce grammatical structures by using word meanings they acquire from observing events around them. After children acquire a large, diverse lexicon from their observations of objects and events in the world, they use correspondences between semantics and syntax to determine the syntactic category to which each word belongs.
Prosodic bootstrapping is a third type of bootstrapping theory; it suggests infants use their sensitivity to the acoustic properties of speech (e.g., pitch, rhythm, pauses, stress) to make inferences about units of language, including clauses, phrases, and words. When infants are sensitive to the acoustic patterns of their native language, they may be better able to isolate important language units from running speech, and eventually they begin to assign meaning to those units.
Children use their knowledge of syntactic categories, word meanings, or the prosodic structure of language to make inferences about other aspects of language.
*Bootstrapping; Syntax; Semantics; Prosodic; acoustics
Vygotsky contended that all concepts are introduced first in the context of social interaction (the social plane); then, with time, these concepts are internalized to the psychological plane. Social interaction between an infant and other, more capable persons (parents, siblings, teachers, etc.) is a critical mechanism for children's language acquisition. Vygotsky viewed language as a uniquely human ability that exists independent of general cognition starting at about age 2 years: He believed prior to this time, general cognition and language are intertwined, but at about age 2 years, these two processes begin to develop as separate (albeit interrelated) capabilities.
zone of proximal development (ZPD) is the difference between a child's actual developmental level, as determined by independent problem solving, and his or her level of potential development, as determined through problem solving in collaboration with a more competent adult or peer. The ZPD concept characterizes development dynamically by describing abilities in children that are in the process of maturing rather than by focusing solely on abilities that have already matured.
From a Vygotskian perspective, examining what children can do with mediated assistance from others is necessary for identifying maturing capabilities, which provides an important window into development. Vygotsky's position is that as children learn language through social interactions, their general cognitive abilities are subsequently propelled forward.
Language emerges through social interaction with peers and adults. Language skills move from a social plane to a psychological plane. Initially, language and cognition are intertwined processes, but they become separate capabilities by about age 2 years.
*Social plane- psychological plane; Zone of proximal development
children's abilities in language, emotional expression, cognition, social interaction, and play develop in tandem. The child is responsible for driving language learning forward. This model differs from other interactionist theories that propose the child's environment or peers have the most influence in driving language development. In fact, in this model, children learn language when what they have in mind differs from what other individuals around them have in mind because they must express themselves to share this information. For example, a young girl cannot assume her mother will always know when she is thirsty and offer her a drink. Therefore, the girl must learn to express this intention with language. To acquire language, then, children must be intentional, they must take strides to engage in social interaction, and they must put forth effort to construct linguistic representations for the ideas they want to express and then act to express these ideas.
The tension between the desire to communicate intentions to other people and the effort required to communicate these intentions drives language development.
describes specific mechanisms through which children acquire the acceptable morphological, phonological, syntactic, and lexical forms that compose their native language. Children acquire language forms that they hear frequently and reliably early in life, and later in life they acquire forms that they hear rarely or inconsistently. In the competition model, multiple language forms compete with one another until the input strengthens the correct representation and the child no longer produces an incorrect form.
A common child language phenomenon that illustrates how the competition model works is overgeneralization. You have probably heard children say "I goed" instead of "I went", or "I runned" instead of "I ran." When children who are learning language make an irregular past tense verb regular by adding a /d/, /t/, or /ld/ sound, they are overgeneralizing the past tense rule that applies to most verbs in the English language. Eventually, though, with ongoing reliable exposures to an irregular form such as went, the correct past tense representation of the word is strengthened, and the incorrect form (goed) dies out.
Repeated exposure to reliable language input strengthens children's "correct" representations of the morphology, phonology, and syntax of their language.
*Reliable input; Strengthened representation
Cognitive principles include ideas governing language processing and automaticity and the role of tangible and intangible rewards the speaker gains through language use.
Affective principles are related to the individual's confidence with language learning and his or her propensity to take risks with respect to language.
Linguistic principles describe the role of a person's native language in simultaneously facilitating and interfering with second language acquisition.
The audiolingual method was developed in response to an increasing need for translators during World War II. It emphasizes imitation, repetition, and memorization of language forms to create automatic and habitual language responses. Teachers using the audiolingual method engage students in language drills that include positive reinforcement for target verbal behavior. For example, the teacher might present lines of dialogue for students to repeat and then praise them for pronouncing the lines correctly. Teachers target more complex linguistic behavior only after students have mastered smaller, simpler chunks of language. This method has roots in behavioral psychology—more specifically in Skinner's nurture-inspired behaviorist theory—in that it emphasizes eliciting a learner's rote, habitual responses to language forms.
The Silent Way is a language-teaching method that was popular during the cognitive revolution of the early 1970s. It emphasizes the importance of allowing students to generate hypotheses about language rules and then to apply the rules and discover errors. Using the Silent Way, teachers facilitate students' discovery of language rules, remaining mostly silent and using color-coded rods rather than words to represent vocabulary words, grammatical forms, and pronunciation rules. The Silent Way values the learner's ability to process and detect patterns in linguistic input, to generate and test hypotheses, and to correct errors by personal effort, as well as the learner's native language abilities and knowledge—all characteristics of interactionist theories of language development.
(EBP) involves integrating theoretical knowledge with scientific inquiry to inform decision making. Practitioners incorporate the principles of EBP to inform their everyday decision making in a variety of fields
The U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences (IES) is one organization that provides guidance to education professionals on how to evaluate curricula, programs, and practices to determine the extent to which they are evidence-based. For example, IES describes how professionals can evaluate whether an intervention they are considering for adoption is backed by "strong" evidence of effectiveness. IES considers evidence to be strong when it is from two or more well-designed and well-implemented randomized controlled trials (studies that randomly assign participants to an intervention or control group to measure the intervention's effects) conducted in typical school settings.
The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) provides a position statement that describes how professionals should incorporate the principles of EBP in their clinical decision-making by integrating high-quality research evidence with client preferences and values and with their own experience as practitioners. As with the IES guidelines for EBP, ASHA recommends that professionals evaluate the quality of evidence before incorporating such evidence in their decision-making. ASHA further emphasizes five additional areas to consider in making clinical decisions: (a) integrating the needs, values, abilities, preferences, and interests of individuals and their families with research evidence;
(b) acquiring and maintaining the knowledge and skills necessary to provide high-quality services;
(c) identifying informative and cost-effective screening and diagnostic tools in accordance with the EBP literature;
(d) identifying effective clinical protocols for prevention, treatment, and enhancement in accordance with the EBP literature; and
(e) continually monitoring and incorporating new high-quality research evidence that has implications for practice