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Waves begin to "feel bottom" when the depth of water is ________.

equal to half the wavelength

Which of the following is designed to reduce shoreline erosion?

all of these

The movement of water within the surf zone that parallels the shore is termed

longshore current

Density in seawater is determined by ________.

both temperature and salinity

Tidal flats are submerged during ebb tide.


Groins are constructed for the purpose of maintaining or widening beaches that are losing sand.


A rapid change in temperature with depth in the ocean is called the ________.


When the tide rises, water flows in toward the shore as the ebb tide.


The proportion of dissolved substances in seawater is expressed as 0/00, which is the same as ________.

parts per thousand

Because of the Coriolis effect, surface ocean currents are deflected to the ________ of their path of motion in the Southern Hemisphere.

wrong answer

Salinity in the ocean is highest in regions where ________ is high and ________ is low.

evaporation; precipitation

Thermoclines in the ocean are best developed at ________.

lower latitudes

The density of seawater is controlled by temperature and salinity.


Large estuaries are more common on a(n) ________ coastline.


The rapid change in temperature with depth in the ocean is called the pycnocline.


The most abundant salt in seawater is ________.


Desalination is currently our most productive and efficient source of fresh water.


Which one of the following structures is built to protect boats from large breaking waves?


Although the Sun influences the tides, its effect is considerably less than the effect of the Moon.


The movement of sand parallel to the shore ________.

all of the above

Which one of the gases listed below is more important in weather processes than the others?

carbon dioxide

Fifty percent of the gases making up the atmosphere are found below ________.

3 ½ miles (5.6 km)

Tiny solid and liquid particles suspended in the atmosphere are collectively called aerosols.


On average, for every 1 kilometer increase in altitude in the troposphere, the air temperature ________.

drops about 6.5˚C

If the maximum temperature for a particular day is 26˚C and the minimum temperature is 14˚C, the daily range would be ________.


Two cities are located at the same latitude (40˚). City A is in the Northern Hemisphere and City B is in the Southern Hemisphere. Assume the two cities reflect the general characteristics of the hemispheres where they are located. Which city should have the largest annual mean temperature range?

City A

The triatomic form of oxygen (O3) is known as ________.


The storage of heat in the lower layer of the atmosphere produced by certain heat absorbing gases is called the ________.

greenhouse effect

Ozone filters out most of the ________ radiation in sunlight.


The fall equinox in the Southern Hemisphere occurs on this date.

March 21

Which one of the following is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere?


The 90˚ angle solar rays are striking the Tropic of Capricorn on ________.

December 21

Twenty percent of incoming solar radiation is absorbed by the land and sea; fifty percent is absorbed by the atmosphere and clouds.


A coastal location where prevailing winds blow from the ocean onto the shore will probably have ________.

cooler summer temperatures than an inland location at the same latitude

Air may best be described as ________.

a mixture

This process of heat transfer involves the movement of a mass or substance.

all of these

With which of the following is dust in the atmosphere associated?

all of these

90˚ angle solar rays are striking 23.5 degrees North latitude (the Tropic of Cancer) on ________.

the June Solstice

Relative humidity is usually expressed as a percent.


The capacity of air to "hold" water vapor is temperature dependent.


When warm moist air moves over a cold surface, ________ fog may result.


The term ________ is used to describe the conversion of a solid directly to a gas, without
passing through the liquid state.


The Great Basin Desert of the western United States is a good example of a ________.

subtropical desert

The dew point is the temperature at which ________.

water vapor condenses to a liquid

A parcel of air has a temperature of 0°C at an elevation of 3000 meters as it crosses a mountain range. If it descends, what will its temperature be when it reaches sea level?


When air rises, it expands and cools adiabatically.


When supercooled raindrops freeze on contact with solid objects, ________ forms.


This fog results from adiabatic cooling.


If the temperature drops and the amount of moisture in the air remains unchanged, the
relative humidity will increase.


The highest relative humidity during a particular day usually occurs just before sunrise.


Clouds form because rising air cools as it comes in contact with colder air aloft.


This cloud may develop an "anvil head."


Thunder and lightning are associated with these clouds.


When air is cooled to its dew point, the relative humidity is 100%.


This term is used to describe clouds found in the middle height range.


This process results in the release of about 600 calories of latent heat per gram of water.


Please answer the following questions using the data below:
H2O vapor content: 14 grams
Saturation mixing ratio:
20 grams at 25 degrees Celsius
14 grams at 20°C
10 grams at 15°C

What is the dew point for the conditions listed above?


High clouds that form delicate veil-like patches or extended wispy fibers are termed


The Coriolis effect influences ________.

only wind direction

The Coriolis effect is strongest at the equator and diminishes in strength poleward.


Low pressure systems are usually associated with clear weather.


The subpolar low (polar front) is ________.

a zone where the polar easterlies and the westerlies converge

Which of these instruments is NOT used to measure air pressure?


Cyclones are usually associated with stormy weather.


High pressure systems are usually associated with stormy weather.


Low air pressure systems are usually associated with ________.


In the Southern Hemisphere, the winds associated with a low pressure system blow ________.

clockwise and toward the center

The Sahara and Australian deserts (among others) are associated with the ________.

subtropical high

In the Northern Hemisphere, the winds associated with a low pressure system (cyclone) blow ________.

counterclockwise and toward the center

If "fair" weather were approaching, the pressure tendency would probably be ________.


If the barometer indicated 1020 millibars, air pressure would be considered high.


Which of these factors influence the magnitude of the Coriolis Effect?

both wind speed and latitude

Closely spaced isobars often indicate ________.

high winds

In the Northern Hemisphere, winds blow clockwise and outward from the center of anticyclones.


Most of the United States is situated in which zone of prevailing winds?


Standard sea level pressure in inches of mercury is ________.

29.92 inches

The ultimate cause of a sea breeze is the unequal heating of land and water.


Closely spaced isobars indicate high wind speeds.


love you mom!: adryane waz here!<3 remeber to study hard.


When a hurricane moves onto land, it rapidly loses its punch; that is, the storm declines in intensity. Which of the factors listed below contribute to this loss of punch?

both A and B

Tornadoes are most often generated along the cold front of a middle-latitude cyclone.


In a mature middle-latitude cyclone, the warm front precedes the cold front.


Positive feedback mechanisms produce results that are opposite of the initial change and tend to offset it.


Positive feedback mechanisms produce results that are opposite of the initial change and tend to offset it.


When an active cold front overtakes a warm front ________.

an occluded front forms

Surface cyclones are accompanied by divergence aloft.


An air mass from the Gulf of Mexico is labeled ________.


A tornado warning is issued by the National Weather Service after a tornado has been sighted in an area or is indicated by weather radar.


Thunderstorms are usually associated with nimbostratus clouds.


Cold fronts usually move more slowly than warm fronts.


On a weather map, ________ fronts are shown by a line with triangular points on one side.

wrong answer. not warm.

Continental polar air masses seldom influence the weather south of the Great Lakes.


The eye of a hurricane is ________.

warmer than the rest of the storm

After the center of a mature wave cyclone passes, you should expect ________.

barometric pressure to rise

If you were 200 kilometers ahead of the surface position of a warm front, you would find the frontal surface at a height of about ________ km overhead.


If an observer sees cirrus clouds, followed later by cirrostratus, and then altostratus, he or she is witnessing the approach of a ________ front.


Doppler radar aids tornado detection.


An mP air mass is ________.

cold and humid

The precipitation associated with a warm front typically arrives ________ the actual frontal boundary.

considerably ahead of

Saturn's rings are clusters of relatively small, individual particles; the rings observed on Jupiter are violent storm clouds swirling above the polar regions of the planet.


The most explosive events to occur on the Sun are ________.

solar flares

The Sun is considered an "average star."


The largest known volcano in the solar system is ________.

Olympus Mons on Mars

Large impact craters and large, domal features (probably representing viscous lava flows) have been imaged on the surface of Venus.


Lunar regolith breccia contains crystalline rock fragments and glassy fragments.


The outermost layer of the Sun is called the ________.


Jupiter is the largest and most massive planet in the solar system.


How did the lunar maria most likely originate?

huge impact basins that were nearly filled with basaltic lava flows

During periods of high solar activity, huge cloudlike structures that appear as great arches extending from the Sun are often produced. These solar features are called ________.


The Sun produces energy by converting ________.

hydrogen nuclei to helium nuclei

The high surface temperatures of this planet have been attributed to the greenhouse effect.


The dark tail of a comet is called a coma


Astronomers currently estimate the internal temperature of the Sun at 1500˚C.


The Martian polar caps are thought to be mainly frozen methane and ammonia.


Pluto is now classified as a ________ in our solar system.

dwarf planet

Vast, circular to elliptical dark-colored, smooth areas of the Moon are known as ________.

lunar maria

Compared to Earth's atmosphere, the atmosphere of Mars has surface pressures that are ________.

0.1 times those on Earth; major gases are water vapor and carbon dioxide

Comets are thought to be composed of dust and tiny, icy particles encased in small, solidified, metallic fragments.


The point in stellar evolution when a star has used up all its fuel and is radiating away its remaining thermal energy as light is the ________ stage.

white dwarf

The greatest number of galaxies belong to the type known as elliptical galaxies.


When a main-sequence star has exhausted the fuel in the inner region, it becomes a ________.

red giant

The measure of a star's brightness is called its ________.


Cool stars evolve much more quickly than do hot stars.


One of the most common units used to express stellar distance is the ________.


The Sun is considered an average star.


Stars having the same surface temperature radiate the same amount of energy per unit area.


The final stage in the evolution of a star like our Sun is a neutron star.


Hubble's law states that galaxies are receding from us at a speed that is proportional to their ________.


The Milky Way is classified as a spiral galaxy.


The larger the magnitude number, the brighter will be the star.


The hottest main-sequence stars are also the most massive.


Which main-sequence stars are the most massive?


Stars spend most of their life span as main-sequence stars.


Most galaxies in the universe are moving away from us.


These stars are produced during a supernova event.

black hole

The discovery that the universe appears to be expanding led to a widely accepted theory called ________.

the Big Bang

The measure of a star's brightness is called its magnitude.


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