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Anatomy and Physiology chapter 11. . . kicking my ass

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What are the four main divisions of the brain?
Brainstem, diencephalon, cerebrum, and cerebellum.
how many pounds does the brain weigh?
3 pounds
the brainstem consists of what three smaller areas?
medulla oblongata, the pons varolii, and the midbrain
The diencephalon consists of what two parts?
thalamus, and hypothalamus.
what protects the brain?
cranial bones and meninges
what does the cerebrospinal fluid circulate through?
subarachnoid space around the brain and spinal cordand ventricles of the brain.
ventricles
cavities within the brain that connect with each other, with the subarachnoid space of the meninges and with the central canal of the spinal cord.
what serves as a shock absorber for the central nervous system and circulates nutrients?
CSF
how many ventricles does the brain contain?
four
what connects the lateral ventricle with the third ventricle?
interventricular foramen or foramen of Monroe
interventricular foramen or foramen of Monroe
a narrow oval opening connecting the lateral ventricles with the third ventricle.
where is the fourth ventricle located?
between the cerebellum and the lower brainstem.
what connects the third and fourth ventricles?
cerebral aqueduct or aqueduct of sylvius
what allows flow of CSF through the SC and Brain?
three openings on the roof of the fourth ventricle which connects the subarachnoid space of the brain and spinal meninges.
what connects the brain to the spinal cord?
brainstem
what contains all the ascending and descending tracts that connect between the spinal cord and various parts of the brain?
medulla oblongata
what make up the white matter of the medulla?
ascending and descending tracts
what is the crossing of motor tracts as they pass through the medulla?
decussation of pyramids.
why do motor areas on one side of the cortex of the cerebrum control skeletal movements on the opposite side of the body?
because motor tracts cross in the medulla at places called decussation of pyramids
what functions in maintaining consciousness and arousal?
reticular formation
reticular formation
an area of dispersed gray matter in the medulla.
what regulates the diameter of blood vessels?
the vasomotor center
what regulates the force of contraction and heartbeat?
the cardiac center
what adjusts your basic rhythm of breathing?
the medullary rhythmicity area
the vasomotor center, cardiac center, and medullary rhythmicity area are three vital reflex centers of what?
the reticular system located in the medulla
what connects the spinal cord with the brain and parts of the brain with each other?
pons varolii
what is another term for midbrain?
mesencephalon
what does the midbrain contain?
the ventral cerebral peduncles and dorsal tectum
what conveys impulses from the cerebral cortex to the pons and spinal cord?
ventral cerebral peduncles
what fis a reflex center that controls the movement of the eyeballs and head in response to visual stimuli?
dorsal tectum
what is superior to the midbrain and between the two cerebral hemispheres?
diencephalon
what surrounds the third ventricle?
diencephalon
what two main areas is the diencephalon divided into?
thalamus and the hypothalamus
what is a part of the diencephalon where optic nerves cross each other?
optic tracts and optic chiasma
what attaches to the pituitary gland?
infundibulum
what are involved in memory and emotional responses to odor?
mamillary bodies
what is a pinecon-shaped endocrine gland that secretes melatonin?
pineal gland
what is the superior part of the diencephalon and principal relay statoion for sensory impulses that reach the cerebral cortex coming from the spinal cord, brainstem and parts of the cerebrum/
thalamus
what plays a role as an interpretation center for conscious recognition of pain, temperature, and crude pressure and touch?
the thalamus
what is the small area superior and posterior to the thalamus that contains small nuclei concerned with emotional and viceral responses to odor?
epithalamus
what is the inferior part of the diencephalon and controls many bodily functions related to homeostasis?
the hypothalamus
what receives sensory impulses from the internal organs?
hypothalamus
what is the cnter for mind-over-body phenomena?
hypothalamus
what makes up the bulk of the brain?
cerebrum
what is the surface of the cerebrum composed of gray matter referred to as?
the cerebral cortex
what lies beneath the cortex?
cerebral white matter
what separates the cerebrum into right and left halves or cerebral hemispheres?
longitudinal fissure
what are the numerous folds on the surface of each hemisphere?
gyri
what are intervening grooves found with gyri?
sulci
what connects the two cerebral hemispheres?
corpus callosum
what lobe controls voluntary muscular functions, moods, aggression, smell reception, and motivation?
frontal lobe
what separates the parietal lobe from the frontal lobe?
central sulcus
wht is the control center for evaluating sensory information of touch, pain, balnce, taste , and temperature?
parietal lobe
what separates the temporal love from the frontal and parietal lobes?
lateral fisure
what evaluates hearing input and smell as well as being involved with memory processes?
temporal lobe
what froms the back portion of each hemisphere which receives and interprets visual input?
occipital lobe
what separates the cerebrum into frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes?
lateral sulcus
what lobe is embedded deep in the lateral sulcus?
insula
what is the second larges portion of the brain shaped somewhat like a butterfly?
cerebellum
what functions as a reflex center coordinating complex skeletal muscular movements, maintaining proper body posture, and keeping the body balanced?
cerebellum
what consists of two partially separated hemispheres connected by a centrally constricted structure?
cerebellum
what is the centrally constricted structure which connects the hemispheres of the cerebellum?
vermis
there are how many pairs of cranial nerves?
12
how man pairs originate from the brainstem?
10
what cranial nerve is snesory and conveys impulses related to smell?
olfactory nerve (I)
what cranial nerve is entirely sensory and conveys impulses related to sight?
optic nerve(II)
what cranial nerve controls movements of the eyeball and regulation of the size of the pupil?
oculomotor(III)
what cranial nerve controls eye movements?
Trochlear(IV)
movements and delivers impulses related to touch, pain and temperature in the teeth and facial area?
trigeminal nerve(V)
what cranial nerve controls the movement of the eyeball particulary abduction?
abducens(VI)
what cranial nerve controls taste facial expressions, and secretions of saliva
facial(VII)
what cranial nerve controls balance and hearing?
Vestibulocochlear(VIII)
what cranial nerve controls taste, swallowing, and secretion of saliva?
glossopharyngeal(IX)
what cranial nerve controls sensation of organs supplied and the movement of organs supplied?
vagus(X)
what cranial nerve controls shoulder movement, turning of head, and voice production?
accessory(XI)
what cranial nerve controls tongue movements?
hypoglossal(XII)
what is in tears that lubricate the eye and help combat bacterial infections?
lysozyme, salt, and gamma globulin