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1,473 terms

Medical Terminology (prefixes, roots, suffixes)

Medical Terminology for Health Professionals. I used this set to cram for the VIHA Medical Terminology Assessment. It's a long list but if you export it into Excel and just read it over quickly about 5 times or so and then do the flashcards once or twice you'll have a good understanding of most medical terms. I did that on Saturday and then studied the "Pronunciation of Terms" and their definitions from The Language of Medicine (I borrowed a book where someone had already written the definitions…
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a-
no, not, without, away from, negative
-a
noun ending
ab-
away from, negative, absent
abdomin/o
abdomen
-able
capable of, able to
abort/o
premature expulsion of a nonviable fetus
abrad/o, abras/o
rub or scrape off
abrupt/o
broken away from
abs-
away from
abscess/o
collection of pus, going away
absorpt/o
suck up, suck in
-ac
pertaining to
acanth/o
spiny, thorny
acetabul/o
acetabulum (hip socket)
-acious
characterized by
acne/o
point or peak
acous/o,acoust/o
hearing, sound
acquir/o
get, obtain
acr/o
extremities (hands and feet), top, extreme point
acromi/o
acromion, point of shoulder blade
actin/o
light
acu/o
sharp, severe, sudden
acuit/o, acut/o
sharp, sharpness
acust/o, -acusia, -acusis
hearing, sense of hearing
ad-
toward, to, in the direction of
aden/o
gland
adenoid/o
adenoids
adhes/o
stick to, cling to
adip/o
fat
adnex/o
bound to
adren/o, adrenal/o
adrenal glands
aer/o
air, gas
aesthet/o
sensation, sense of perception
af-
toward, to
affect/o
exert influence on
agglutin/o
clumping, stick together
aggress/o
attack, step forward
-ago
abnormal condition, disease
agor/a
marketplace
-agra
excessive pain, seizure, attack of severe pain
-aise
comfort, ease
-al
pertaining to
alb/i, alb/o,
white
albumin/o
albumin, protein
alg/e, algi/o, alg/o, algesi/o
relationship to pain
-algesia, -algesic
painful, pain sense
-algia
pain, painful condition
align/o
bring into line or correct position
aliment/o
to nourish
all/o, all-
other, different from normal, reversal
alopec/o
baldness, mangy
alveol/o
alveolus, air sac, small sac
ambi-
both sides, around or about, double
ambly/o
dull, dim
ambul/o, ambulat/o
walk
ametr/o
out of proportion
-amine
nitrogen compound
amni/o
amnion, fetal membrane
amph-
around, on both sides, doubly
amput/o, amputat/o
cut away, cut off a part of the body
amyl/o
starch
an-
no, not, without
an-, ana-
up, apart, backward, excessive
an/o
anus, ring
-an
characteristic of, pertaining to
-ancy
state of
andr/o
relationship to the male
aneurysm/o
aneurysm
angi/o
blood or lymph vessel
angin/o
angina, choking, strangling
anis/o
unequal
ankyl/o
crooked, bent, stiff
anomal/o
irregularity
ante-
before, in front of
anter/o
before, front
anthrac/o
coal, coal dust
anti-
against
anxi/o, anxiet/o
anxiety, anxious, uneasy
aort/o
aorta
ap-
toward, to
-apheresis
removal
aphth/o
ulcer
apic/o
apex
ap-, apo-
separation, away from, opposed, detached
aplast/o
defective development, lack of development
aponeur/o
aponeurosis (type of tendon)
apoplect/o
a stroke
append/o, appendic/o
appendix
aqu/i, aqu/o, aque/o
water
-ar
pertaining to
arachn/o
spider web, spider
arc/o
bow, arc or arch
-arche
beginning
areat/o
occurring in patches or circumscribed areas
areol/o
little open space
-aria
connected with
arrect/o
upright, lifted up, raised
arter/o, arteri/o
artery
arthr/o
joint
articul/o
joint
-ary
pertaining to
as-
toward, to
asbest/o
asbestos
-ase
enzyme
aspir/o, aspirat/o
to breathe in
asthen-, -asthenia
weakness, lack of strength
asthmat/o
gasping, choking
astr/o
star, star-shaped
at-
toward, to
atel/o
incomplete, imperfect
ather/o
plaque, fatty substance
athet/o
uncontrolled
atop/o
strange, out of place
atres/i
without an opening
atri/o
atrium
attenuat/o
diluted, weakened
aud-, audi/o, audit/o
ear, hearing, the sense of hearing
aur/i, aur/o
ear, hearing
auscult/a, auscult/o
listen
aut/o
self
-ax
noun ending
ax/o
axis, main stem
axill/o
armpit
azot/o
urea, nitrogen
bacill/o
rod-shaped bacterium
bacteri/o
bacteria
balan/o
glans penis
bar/o
pressure, weight
bartholin/o
Bartholin's gland
bas/o
base, opposite of acid
bi-
twice, double, two
bi/o
life
bifid/o
split, divided into two parts
bifurcat/o
divide or fork into two branches
bil/i
bile, gall
bilirubin/o
bilirubin
bin-
two by two
-blast
embryonic, immature, formative element
blephar/o
eyelid
borborygm/o
rumbling sound
brachi/o
arm
brachy-
short
brady-
slow
brev/i, brev/o
short
bronch/i, bronchi/o, bronch/o
bronchial tube, bronchus
bronchiol/o
bronchiole, bronchiolus
brux/o
grind
bucc/o
cheek
burs/o
bursa, sac of fluid near joint
byssin/o
cotton dust
cadaver/o
dead body, corpse
calcane/o
calcaneus, heel bone
calc/i
calcium, lime, the heel
calci-, calc/o
calcium
calcul/o
stone, little stone
cali/o, calic/o
cup, calyx
call/i, callos/o
hard, hardened and thickened
calor/i
heat
canalicul/o
little canal or duct
canth/o
corner of the eye
capill/o
hair
capit/o
head
capn/o
carbon dioxide, sooty or smoky appearance
capsul/o
little box
carb/o
carbon
carbuncl/o
carbuncle
carcin/o
cancerous
cardi/o, card/o
heart
cari/o
rottenness, decay
carot/o
stupor, sleep
carp/o
wrist bones
cartilag/o
cartilage, gristle
caruncul/o
bit of flesh
cat-, cata-,cath-
down, lower, under, downward
catabol/o
a breaking down
cathart/o
cleansing, purging
cathet/o
insert, send down
caud/o
lower part of body, tail
caus/o, caust/o
burning, burn
cauter/o, caut/o
heat, burn
cav/i, cav/o
hollow, cave
cavern/o
containing hollow spaces
cec/o
cecum
-cele
hernia, tumor, swelling
celi/o, cel/o
abdomen, belly
cement/o
cementum, a rough stone
cent-
hundred
-centesis
surgical puncture to remove fluid
cephal/o, -ceps
head
cera-
wax
cerebell/o
cerebellum
cerebr/o
cerebrum, brain
cerumin/o
cerumen, earwax
cervic/o
neck, cervix (neck of uterus)
cheil/o
lip or lips
cheir/o
hand
chem./i, chem/o, chemic/o
drug, chemical
chir/o
hand
chlor/o
green
chlorhydr/o
hydrochloric acid
chol/e
bile, gall
cholangi/o
bile duct
cholecyst/o
gallbladder
choledoch/o
common bile duct
cholesterol/o
cholesterol
chondr/i, chondr/o
cartilage
chord/o
spinal cord, cord
chore/o
dance
chori/o, chorion/o
chorion, membrane
choroid/o
choroid layer of eye
chrom/o, chromat/o
color
chron/o
time
chym/o
to pour, juice
cib/o
meal
cicatric/o
scar
-cidal
pertaining to killing
-cide
causing death
cili/o
eyelashes, microscopic hair-like projections
cine-
relationship to movement
circ/i
ring or circle
circulat/o
circulate, go around in a circle
circum-
around, about
circumcis/o
cutting around
circumscrib/o
confined, limited in space
cirrh/o
orange-yellow, tawny
cis/o
cut
clasis, -clast
break down
claudicat/o
limping
claustr/o
barrier
clav/i
key
clavicul/o, cleid/o
clavicle, collar bone
climacter/o
crisis, rung of a ladder
clitor/o
clitoris
-clonus
violent action
clus/o
shut or close
-clysis
irrigation, washing
co-
together, with
coagul/o, coagulat/o
clotting, coagulation
coarct/o, coarctat/o
press together, narrow
cocc/i, cocc/o, -coccus
spherical bacteria
coccyg/o
coccyx, tailbone
cochle/o
spiral, snail, snail shell
coher/o, cohes/o
cling, stick together
coit/o
a coming together
col/o
colon, large intestine
coll/a
glue
colon/o
colon, large intestine
colp/o
vagina
column/o
pillar
com-
together, with
comat/o
deep sleep
comminut/o
break into pieces
communic/o
share, to make common
compatibil/o
sympathize with
con-
together, with
concav/o
hollow
concentr/o
condense, intensify, remove excess water
concept/o
become pregnant
conch/o
shell
concuss/o
shaken together, violently agitated
condyl/o
knuckle, knob
confus/o
confusion, disorder
coni/o
dust
conjunctiv/o
conjunctiva, joined together, connected
consci/o
aware, awareness
consolid/o
become firm or solid
constipat/o
pressed together, crowded together
constrict/o
draw tightly together
-constriction
narrowing
contact/o
touched, infected
contagi/o
infection, unclean, touching of something
contaminat/o
render unclean by contact, pollute
contine/o, continent/o
keep in, contain, hold back, restrain
contra-
against, counter, opposite
contracept/o
prevention of conception
contus/o
bruise
convalesc/o
recover, become strong
convex/o
arched, vaulted
convolut/o
coiled, twisted
convuls/o
pull together
copi/o
plentiful
copulat/o
joining together, linking
cor/o
pupil
cord/o
cord, spinal cord
cordi/o
heart
core/o
pupil
cori/o
skin, leather
corne/o
cornea
coron/o
coronary, crown
corp/u, corpor/o
body
corpuscul/o
little body
cort-
covering
cortic/o
cortex, outer region
cost/o
rib
cox/o
hip, hip joint
crani/o
skull
-crasia
a mixture or blending
creatin/o
creatine
crepit/o, crepitat/o
crackling, rattling
crin/o, -crine
secrete
cris/o, critic/o
turning point
-crit
to separate
cry/o
cold
crypt/o
hidden
cubit/o
elbow
cuboid/o
cube-like
culd/o
cul-de-sac, blind pouch
cult/o
cultivate
-cusis
hearing
cusp/i
point, pointed flap
cutane/o
skin
cyan/o
blue
cycl/o
ciliary body of eye, cycle
-cyesis
pregnancy
cyst-, -cyst
bladder, bag
cyst/o
urinary bladder, cyst, sac of fluid
cyt/o, -cyte
cell
-cytic
pertaining to a cell
-cytosis
condition of cells
dacry/o
tear, lacrimal duct (tear duct)
dacryocyst/o
lacrimal sac (tear sac)
dactyl/o
fingers, toes
de-
down, lack of, from, not, removal
debrid/e
open a wound
deca-, deci-
ten, tenth
decidu/o
shedding, falling off
decubit/o
lying down
defec/o, defecat/o
free from waste, clear
defer/o
carrying down or out
degenerat/o
gradual impairment, breakdown, diminished function
deglutit/o
swallow
dehisce/o
burst open, split
deliri/o
wandering in the mind
delt/o
Greek letter delta, triangular shape
delus/o
delude, mock, cheat
dem/o
people, population
-dema
swelling (fluid)
demi-
half
dendr/o
branching, resembling a tree
dent/i, dent/o
tooth, teeth
depilate/o
hair removal
depress/o
press down, lower, pressed or sunk down
derma-, dermat/o, derm/o
skin
desic/o
drying
-desis
surgical fixation of bone or joint, to bind, tie together
deteriorat/o
worsening or gradual impairment
dextr/o
right side
di-
twice, twofold, double
dia-
through, between, apart, complete
diaphor/o
sweat
diaphragmat/o
diaphragm, wall across
diastole/o
standing apart, expansion
didym/o
testes, twins, double
diffus/o
pour out, spread apart
digest/o
divide, distribute
digit/o
finger or toe
dilat/o, dilatat/o
spread out, expand
-dilation
widening, stretching, expanding
dilut/o
dissolve, separate
diphther/o
membrane
dipl/o
double
dips/o, -dipsia
thirst
dis-
negative, apart, absence of
dislocat/o
displacement
dissect/o
cutting apart
disseminat/o
widely scattered
dist/o
far
distend/o, distent/o
stretch apart, expand
diur/o, diuret/o
tending to increase urine output
divert/i
turning aside
domin/o
controlling, ruling
don/o
give
dors/i, dors/o
back of body
-dote
what is given
-drome
to run, running
-duct
opening
duct/o
to lead, carry
duoden/i, duoden/o
duodenum, first part of small intestine
-dural
pertaining to dura mater
-dynia
pain
dys-
bad, difficult, or painful
e-
out of, from
-e
noun ending
-eal
pertaining to
ec-
out, outside
ecchym/o
pouring out of juice
ech/o
sound
eclamps/o, eclampt/o
flashing or shining forth
ectasia, -ectasis
stretching, dilation, enlargement
ecto-
out, outside
-ectomy
surgical removal, cutting out, excision
-ectopy
displacement
eczemat/o
eruption
-edema
swelling
edem-, edemat/o
swelling, fluid, tumor
edentul/o
without teeth
ef-
out
effect/o
bring about a response, activate
effus/o
pouring out
ejaculat/o
throw or hurl out
electr/o
electricity, electric
eliminat/o
expel from the body
em-
in
emaciat/o
wasted by disease
embol/o
something inserted or thrown in
embry/o
fertilized ovum, embryo
-emesis
vomiting
emet/o
vomit
-emia
blood, blood condition
emmetr/o
in proper measure
emolli/o
make soft, soften
en-
in, within, into
encephal/o
brain
end-, endo-
in, within, inside
endocrin/o
secrete within
enem/o
end in, inject
enter/o
small intestine
ento-
within
eosin/o
red, rosy
epi-
above, upon, on
epidemi/o
among the people, an epidemic
epididym/o
epididymis
epiglott/o
epiglottis
episi/o
vulva
epithel/i, epitheli/o
epithelium
equin/o
pertaining to a horse
-er
one who
erect/o
upright
erg/o, -ergy
work
erot/o
sexual love
eruct/o, eructat/o
belch forth
erupt/o
break out, burst forth
erythem/o, erythemat/o
flushed, redness
erythr/o
red
es-
out of, outside, away from
-esis
abnormal condition, disease
eso-
inward
esophag/o
esophagus
-esthesia, esthesi/o
sensation, feeling
esthet/o
feeling, nervous sensation, sense of perception
estr/o
female
ethm/o
sieve
eti/o
cause
eu-
good, normal, well, or easy
-eurysm
widening
evacu/o, evacuat/o
empty out
ex-
out of, outside, away from
exacerbat/o
aggravate, irritate
exanthemat/o
rash
excis/o
cutting out
excori/o, excoriat/o
abrade or scratch
excret/o
separate, discharge
excruciat/o
intense pain, agony
exhal/o, exhalat/o
breathe out
exo-
out of, outside, away from
exocrin/o
secrete out of
expector/o
cough up
expir/o, expirat/o
breathe out
exstroph/o
turned or twisted out
extern/o
outside, outer
extra-
on the outside, beyond, outside
extreme/o, extremit/o
extremity, outermost
extrins/o
from the outside, contained outside
exud/o, exudat/o
to sweat out
faci/o
face, form
-facient
making, producing
fasci/o
fascia, fibrous band
fascicul/o
little bundle
fatal/o
pertaining to fate, death
fauc/i
narrow pass, throat
febr/i
fever
fec/i, fec/o
dregs, sediment, waste
femor/o
femur, thigh bone
fenestr/o
window
fer/o
bear, carry
-ferent
carrying
-ferous
bearing, carrying, producing
fertil/o
fertile, fruitful, productive
fet/i, fet/o
fetus, unborn child
fibr/o
fiber
fibrill/o
muscular twitching
fibrin/o
fibrin, fibers, threads of a clot
fibros/o
fibrous connective tissue
fibul/o
fibula
-fic, fic/o
making, producing, forming
-fication
process of making
-fida
split
filtr/o, filtrat/o
filter, to strain through
fimbri/o
fringe
fiss/o, fissur/o
crack, split, cleft
fistul/o
tube or pipe
flat/o
flatus, rectal gas
flex/o
bend
flu/o
flow
fluor/o
glowing, luminous
foc/o
focus, point
foll/i
bag, sac
follicul/o
follicle, small sac
foramin/o
opening, foramen
fore-
before, in front of
-form, form/o
resembling, in the shape of
fornic/o
arch, vault, brothel
foss/o
ditch, shallow depression
fove/o
pit
fract/o
break, broken
fren/o
device that limits movement
frigid/o
cold
front/o
forehead, brow
-fuge
to drive away
funct/o, function/o
perform, function
fund/o
bottom, base, ground
fung/i
fungus
furc/o
forking, branching
furuncul/o
furunculus, a boil, an infection
-fusion
pour
galact/o
milk
gamet/o
wife or husband, egg or sperm
gangli/o, ganglion/o
ganglion
gangren/o
eating sore, gangrene
gastr/o
stomach, belly
gastrocnemi/o
gastrocnemius, calf muscle
gemin/o
twin, double
gen-, gen/o, -gen
producing, forming
-gene
production, origin, formation
-genic, -genesis
creation, reproduction
genit/o
produced by, birth, reproductive organs
-genous
producing
ger/i
old age
germin/o
bud, sprout, germ
geront/o
old age
gest/o, gestat/o
bear, carry young or offspring
gigant/o
giant, very large
gingiv/o
gingival tissue, gums
glauc/o
gray
glen/o
socket or pit
gli/o
neurologic tissue, supportive tissue of nervous system
globin/o, -globulin
protein
globul/o
little ball
glomerul/o
glomerulus
gloss/o
tongue
glott/i, glott/o
back of the tongue
gluc/o
glucose, sugar
glute/o
buttocks
glyc/o, glycos/o
glucose, sugar
glycer/o
sweet
glycogen/o
glycogen, animal starch
gnath/o
jaw
-gnosia
knowledge, to know
-gog, -gogue
make flow
goitr/o
goiter, enlargement of the thyroid gland
gon/e, gon/o
seed
gonad/o
gonad, sex glands
goni/o
angle
gracil/o
slender
grad/i
move, go, step, walk
-grade
go
-gram
a picture or record
granul/o
granule(s)
-graph
a picture or record, machine for recording
-graphy
the process of producing a picture or record
gravid/o
pregnancy
-gravida
pregnant
gynec/o
woman, female
gyr/o
turning, folding
hal/o, halit/o
breath
halluc/o
great or large toe
hallucin/o
hallucination, to wander in the mind
hem/e
deep red iron-containing pigment
hem/o, hemat/o
blood, relating to the blood
hemi-
half
hemoglobin/o
hemoglobin
hepat/o
liver
hered/o, heredit/o
inherited, inheritance
herni/o
hernia
herpet/o
creeping
heter/o
other, different
-hexia
habit
hiat/o
opening
hidr/o
sweat
hil/o
hilum, notch or opening from a body part
hirsut/o
hairy, rough
hist/o, histi/o
tissue
holo-
all
hom/o
same, like, alike
home/o
sameness, unchanging, constant
hormon/o
hormone
humer/o
humerus (upper arm bone)
hydr/o, hydra-
relating to water
hygien/o
healthful
hymen/o
hymen, a membrane
hyper-
excessive, increased
hyp-
deficient, decreased
hypn/o
sleep
hypo-
deficient, decreased
hyster/o
uterus
-ia
abnormal condition, disease, plural of -ium
-ial
pertaining to
-ian
specialist
-iasis
abnormal condition, disease
iatr/o
physician, treatment
-iatrics
field of medicine, healing
-iatrist
specialist
-iatry
field of medicine
-ible
capable of, able to
-ic
pertaining to
ichthy/o
dry, scaly
-ician
specialist
icter/o
jaundice
idi/o
peculiar to the individual or organ, one, distinct
-iferous
bearing, carrying, producing
-ific
making, producing
-iform
shaped or formed like, resembling
-igo
attack, diseased condition
-ile
capable of
ile/o
ileum, small intestine
ili/o
ilium, hip bone
illusi/o
deception
im-
not
immune/o
immune, protection, safe
impact/o
pushed against, wedged against, packed
impress/o
pressing into
impuls/o
pressure or pushing force, drive, urging on
in-
in, into, not, without
incis/o
cutting into
incubat/o
incubation, hatching
indurat/o
hardened
-ine
pertaining to
infarct/o
filled in, stuffed
infect/o
infected, tainted
infer/o
below, beneath
infest/o
attack, assail, molest
inflammat/o
flame within, set on fire
infra-
below, beneath, inferior to
infundibul/o
funnel
ingest/o
carry or pour in
inguin/o
groin
inhal/o, inhalat/o
breathe in
inject/o
to force or throw in
innominat/o
unnamed, nameless
inocul/o
implant, introduce
insipid/o
tasteless
inspir/o, inspirat/o
breathe in
insul/o
island
insulin/o
insulin
intact/o
untouched, whole
inter-
between, among
intermitt/o
not continuous
intern/o
within, inner
interstiti/o
the space between things
intestin/o
intestine
intim/o
innermost
intoxic/o
put poison in
intra-
within, inside
intrins/o
contained within
intro-
within, into, inside
introit/o
entrance or passage
intussuscept/o
take up or receive within
involut/o
rolled up, curled inward
iod/o
iodine
-ion
action, process, state or condition
ion/o
ion, to wander
-ior
pertaining to
ipsi-
same
ir-
in
-is
noun ending
ir/i, ir/o, irid/o, irit/o
iris, colored part of eye
is/o
same, equal
isch/o
to hold back
ischi/o
ischium
-ism
condition, state of
iso-
equal
-ist
a person who practices, specialist
-isy
noun ending
-itis
inflammation
-ium
structure, tissue
-ive
performs, tends toward
-ize
to make, to treat
jejun/o
jejunum
jugul/o
throat
juxta-
beside, near, nearby
kal/i
potassium
kary/o
nucleus, nut
kata-, kath-
down
kel/o
growth, tumor
kera-
horn, hardness
kerat/o
horny, hard, cornea
ket/o, keton/o
ketones, acetones
kines/o, kinesi/o, -kinesia
movement
-kinesis
motion
klept/o
to steal
koil/o
hollow or concave
kraur/o
dry
kyph/o
bent, hump
labi/o
lip
labyrinth/o
maze, labyrinth, the inner ear
lacer/o, lacerat/o
torn, mangled
lacrim/o
tear, tear duct, lacrimal duct
lact/i, lact/o
milk
lactat/o
secrete milk
lamin/o
lamina
lapar/o
abdomen, abdominal wall
laps/o
slip, fall, slide
-lapse
to slide, fall, sag
laryng/o
larynx, throat
lat/i, lat/o
broad
later/o
side
lav/o, lavat/o
wash, bathe
lax/o, laxat/o
loosen, relax
leiomy/o
smooth (visceral) muscle
lemm/o
husk, peel, bark
-lemma
sheath, covering
lent/i
the lens of the eye
lenticul/o
shaped like a lens, pertaining to a lens
-lepsy
seizure
lept/o
thin, slender
-leptic
to seize, take hold of
lepto-
small, soft
letharg/o
drowsiness, oblivion
leuk/o
white
lev/o, levat/o
raise, lift up
lex/o, -lexia
word, phrase
libid/o, libidin/o
sexual drive, desire, passion
ligament/o
ligament
ligat/o
binding or tying off
lingu/o
tongue
lipid/o, lip/o
fat, lipid
-listhesis
slipping
lith/o, -lith
stone, calculus
lithiasis
presence of stones
lob/i, lob/o
lobe, well-defined part of an organ
loc/o
place
loch/i
childbirth, confinement
-logy
study of
longev/o
long-lived, long life
lord/o
curve, swayback bent
lumb/o
lower back, loin
lumin/o
light
lun/o, lunat/o
moon
lunul/o
crescent
lup/i, lup/o
wolf
lute/o
yellow
lux/o
to slide
lymph/o
lymph, lymphatic tissue
lymphaden/o
lymph gland
lymphangi/o
lymph vessel
-lysis
breakdown, separation, destruction, loosening
-lyst
agent that causes lysis or loosening
-lytic
to reduce, destroy
macro-
large, abnormal size or length, long
macul/o
spot
magn/o
great, large
major/o
larger
mal-
bad, poor, evil
-malacia
abnormal softening
malign/o
bad, evil
malle/o
malleus, hammer
malleol/o
malleolus, little hammer
mamm/o
breast
man/i
madness, rage
man/i, man/o
hand
mandibul/o
mandible, lower jaw
-mania
obsessive preoccupation
manipul/o
use of hands
manubri/o
handle
masset/o
chew
mast/o
breast
mastic/o, masticat/o
chew
mastoid/o
mastoid process
matern/o
maternal, of a mother
matur/o
ripe
maxill/o
maxilla (upper jaw)
maxim/o
largest, greatest
meat/o
opening or passageway
medi/o
middle
mediastin/o
mediastinum, middle
medic/o
medicine, physician, healing
medicat/o
medication, healing
medull/o
medulla (inner section), middle, soft, marrow
mega-, megal/o
large, great
-megaly
enlargement
mei/o
less, meiosis
melan/o
black, dark
mellit/o
honey, honeyed
membran/o
membrane, thin skin
men/o
menstruation, menses
mening/o, meningi/o
membranes, meninges
menisc/o
meniscus, crescent
mens/o
menstruate, menstruation, menses
menstru/o, menstruat/o
occurring monthly
ment/o
mind, chin
mes-
middle
mesenter/o
mesentery
mesi/o
middle, median plane
meso-
middle
meta-
change, beyond, subsequent to, behind, after or next
metabol/o
change
metacarp/o
metacarpals, bones of the hand
metatars/o
bones of the foot between the tarsus and toes
-meter
measure, instrument used to measure
metr/i, metr/o, metri/o
uterus
-metrist
one who measures
-metry
to measure
micr/o, micro-
small
mictur/o, micturit/o
urinate
mid-
middle
midsagitt/o
from front to back, at the middle
milli-
one-thousandth
-mimetic
mimic, copy
mineral/o
mineral
minim/o
smallest, least
minor/o
smaller
mio-
smaller, less
-mission
to send
mit/o
a thread
mitr/o
a miter, having two points on top
mobil/o
capable of moving
monil/i
string of beads, genus of parasitic mold or fungus
mono-
one, single
morbid/o
disease, sickness
moribund/o
dying
morph/o
shape, form
mort/i, mort/o, mort/u
death, dead
mortal/i
pertaining to death, subject to death
mot/o, motil/o
motion, movement
mu/o
close, shut
muc/o, mucos/o
mucus
multi-
many, much
muscul/o
muscle
mut/a
genetic change
mut/o
unable to speak, inarticulate
mutagen/o
causing genetic change
my/o
muscle
myc/e, myc/o
fungus
mydri/o
wide
mydrias/i
dilation of the pupil
myel/o
spinal cord, bone marrow
myocardi/o
myocardium, heart muscle
myom/o
muscle tumor
myos/o
muscle
miring/o
tympanic membrane, eardrum
myx/o, myxa-
mucus
nar/i
nostril
narc/o
numbness, stupor
nas/i, nas/o
nose
nat/i
birth
natr/o
sodium
nause/o
nausea, seasickness
necr/o
death
-necrosis
tissue death
neo-, ne/o
new, strange
nephr/o
kidney
nerv/o, neur/i, neur/o
nerve, nerve tissue
neutr/o
neither, neutral
nev/o
birthmark, mole
nid/o
next
niter-, nitro-
nitrogen
noct/i
night
nod/o
knot, swelling
nodul/o
little knot
nom/o
law, control
non-
no
nor-
chemical compound
norm/o
normal or usual
nuch/o
the nape
nucle/o
nucleus
nucleol/o
little nucleus, nucleolus
nulli-
none
numer/o
number, count
nunci/o
messenger
nutri/o, nutrit/o
nourishment, food, nourish, feed
nyct/o, nyctal/o
night
ob-
against
obes/o
obese, extremely fat
obliqu/o
slanted, sideways
oblongat/o
oblong, elongated
obstetr/i, obstetr/o
midwife, one who stands to receive
occipit/o
back of the skull, occiput
occlud/o, occlus/o
shut, close up
occult/o
hidden, concealed
ocul/o
eye
odont/o
tooth
-oid
like, resembling
-ole
little, small
olecran/o
elbow, olecranon
olfact/o
smell, sense of smell
olig/o
scanty, few
-ologist
specialist
-ology
the science or study of
-oma
tumor, neoplasm
om/o
shoulder
oment/o
omentum, fat
omphal/o
umbilical cord, the navel
onc/o
tumor
-one
hormone
onych/o
fingernail or toenail
o/o, oo/o
egg
oophor/o
ovary
opac/o, opacit/o
shaded, dark, impenetrable to light
-opaque
obscure
oper/o, operat/o
perform, operate, work
opercul/o
cover or lid
ophthalm/o
eye, vision
-opia
vision condition
opisth/o
backward
-opsia, -opsis, -opsy
vision, view of
opt/i, opt/o, optic/o
eye, vision
or/o
mouth, oral cavity
orbit/o
orbit, bony cavity or socket
orch/o, orchid/o, orchi/o
testicles, testis, testes
-orexia
appetite
organ/o
organ
orgasm/o
swell, be excited
orth/o
straight, normal, correct
-ory
pertaining to
os-
mouth, bone
-ose
full of, pertaining to, sugar
-osis
abnormal condition, disease
osm/o
pushing, thrusting
-osmia
smell, odor
oss/e, oss/i
bone
ossicul/o
ossicle (small bone)
oste/o, ost/o
bone
-ostomy
surgically creating an opening
-ostosis
condition of bone
ot/o
ear, hearing
-otia
ear condition
-otomy
cutting, surgical incision
ov/i, ov/o
egg, ovum
ovari/o
ovary
ovul/o
egg
ox/i, ox/o, ox/y
oxygen
-oxia
oxygen condition
oxid/o
containing oxygen
oxy/o
the presence of oxygen in a compound
pachy-
heavy, thick
palat/o
palate, roof of mouth
pall/o, pallid/o
pale, lacking or drained of color
palliat/o
cloaked, hidden
palm/o
palm of the hand
palpat/o
touch, feel, stroke
palpebr/o
eyelid
palpit/o
throbbing, quivering
pan-
all, entire, every
pancreat/o
pancreas
papill/i, papill/o
nipple-like
papul/o
pimple
par-, para-
beside, near, beyond, abnormal
par/o
to bear, bring forth, labor
-para
to give birth
paralys/o, paralyt/o
disable
parasit/o
parasite
parathyroid/o
parathyroid glands
pares/i
to disable
-paresi
partial or incomplete paralysis
paret/o
to disable
-pareunia
sexual intercourse
pariet/o
wall
parotid/o
parotid gland
-parous
having borne one or more children
paroxysm/o
sudden attack
-partum, parturit/o
childbirth, labor
patell/a, patell/o
patella, kneecap
path/o, -pathy
disease, suffering, feeling, emotion
paus/o
cessation, stopping
-pause
stopping
pector/o
chest
ped/o
child, foot
pedi/a
child
pedicul/o
louse (singular), lice (plural)
pelv/i, pelv/o
pelvic bone, pelvic cavity, hip
pen/i
penis
pend/o
to hang
-penia
deficiency, lack, too few
peps/i, -pepsia, pept/o
digest, digestion
per-
excessive, through
percept/o
become aware, perceive
percuss/o
strike, tap, beat
peri-
surrounding, around
perine/o
perineum
peristals/o, peristalt/o
constrict around
peritone/o
peritoneum
perme/o
to pass or go through
pernici/o
destructive, harmful
perone/o
fibula
perspir/o
perspiration
pertuss/i
intensive cough
petechi/o
skin spot
-pexy
surgical fixation
phac/o
lens of eye
phag/o
eat, swallow
-phage
a cell that destroys, eat, swallow
-phagia
eating, swallowing
phak/o
lens of eye
phalang/o
phalanges, finger and toe
phall/i, phill/o
penis
pharmac/o, pharmaceut/o
drug
pharyng/o
throat, pharynx
phas/o
speech
-phasia
speak or speech
phe/o
dusky
pher/o
to bear or carry
-pheresis
removal
phil/o, -phil, -philia
attraction to, like, love
phleb/o
vein
phlegm/o
thick mucus
phob/o, -phobia
abnormal fear
phon/o, -phonia
sound, voice
phor/o
carry, bear, movement
-phoresis
carrying, transmission
-phoria
to bear, carry, feeling, mental state
phot/o
light
phren/o
diaphragm, mind
-phthisis
wasting away
-phylactic
protective, preventive
-phylaxis
protection
physi/o, physic/o
nature, physical
-physis
to grow
phyt/o, -phyte
plant
pigment/o
pigment, color
pil/i, pil/o
hair
pineal/o
pineal gland
pinn/i
external ear, auricle
pituit/o, pituitar/o
pituitary gland
plac/o
flat plate or patch
placent/o
placenta, round flat cake
plak/o, -plakia
plaque, plate, thin flat layer or scale
plan/o
flat
plant/i, plant/o
sole of foot
plas/i, plas/o, -plasia
development, growth, formation
-plasm
formative material of cells
plasm/o
something molded or formed
-plastic
pertaining to formation
-plasty
surgical repair
ple/o
more, many
-plegia
paralysis, stroke
-plegic
one affected with paralysis
pleur/o
pleura, side of the body
plex/o
plexus, network
plic/o
fold or ridge
pne/o-
breath, breathing
-pnea
breathing
-pneic
pertaining to breathing
pneum/o, pneumon/o
lung, air
pod/o
foot
-poiesis
formation, to make
poikil/o
varied, irregular
pol/o
extreme
poli/o
gray matter of brain and spinal cord
pollic/o
thumb
poly-
many
polyp/o
polyp, small growth
pont/o
pons (a part of the brain), bridge
poplit/o
back of the knee
por/o
pore, small opening
-porosis
lessening in density, porous condition
port/i
gate, door
post-
after, behind
poster/o
behind, toward the back
potent/o
powerful
pract/i, practic/o
practice, pursue an occupation
prandi/o, -prandial
meal
-praxia
action, condition concerning the performance of movements
-praxis
act, activity, practice use
pre-
before, in front of
precoc/i
early, premature
pregn/o
pregnant, full of
prematur/o
too early, untimely
preputi/o
foreskin, prepuce
presby/o
old age
press/o
press, draw
priap/o
penis
primi-
first
pro-
before, in behalf of
process/o
going forth
procident/o
fall down or forward
procreat/o
reproduce
proct/o
anus and rectum
prodrom/o
running ahead, precursor
product/o
lead forward, yield, produce
prolaps/o
fall downward, slide forward
prolifer/o
reproduce, bear offspring
pron/o, pronat/o
bent forward
pros-
before
prostat/o
prostate gland
prosth/o, prosthet/o
addition, appendage
prot/o, prote/o
first
protein/o
protein
proxim/o
near
prurit/o
itching
pseud/o
false
psor/i, psor/o
itch, itching
psych/o
mind
ptomat/o
a fall
-ptosis
droop, sag, prolapse, fall
-ptyal/o
saliva
-ptysis
spitting
pub/o
pubis, part of hip bone
pubert/o
ripe age, adult
pudend/o
pudendum
puerper/i
childbearing, labor
pulm/o, pulmon/o
lung
pulpos/o
fleshy, pulpy
puls/o
beat, beating, striking
punct/o
sting, prick, puncture
pupill/o
pupil
pur/o
pus
purpur/o
purple
purul/o
pus-filled
pustul/o
infected pimple
py/o
pus
pyel/o
renal pelvis, bowl of kidney
pylor/o
pylorus, pyloric sphincter
pyr/o, pyret/o
fever, fire
pyramid/o
pyramid-shaped
quadr/i, quadr/o
four
rabi/o
madness, rage
rachi/o
spinal column, vertebrae
radi/o
radiation, x-rays, radius (lateral lower arm bone)
radiat/o
giving off rays or radiant energy
radicul/o
nerve root
raph/o
seam, suture
re-
back, again
recept/o
receive, receiver
recipi/o
receive, take to oneself
rect/o
rectum, straight
recticul/o
network
recuperat/o
recover, regain health
reduct/o
bring back together
refract/o
bend back, turn aside
regurgit/o
flood or gush back
remiss/o
give up, let go, relax
ren/o
kidney
restor/o
rebuild, put back, restore
resuscit/o
revive
retent/o
hold back
reticul/o
network
retin/o
retina, net
retract/o
draw back or in
retro-
behind, backward, back of
rhabd/o
rod, rod-shaped
rhabdomy/o
striated muscle
rheum/o, rheumat/o
watery flow, subject to flow
rhin/o
nose
rhiz/o
root
rhonc/o
snore, snoring
rhythm/o
rhythm
rhytid/o
wrinkle
rigid/o
stiff
ris/o
laugh
roentgen/o
x-ray
rotat/o
rotate, revolve
-rrhage, -rrhagia
bleeding, abnormal excessive fluid discharge
-rrhaphy
surgical suturing
-rrhea
flow or discharge
-rrhexis
rupture
rube-
red
rug/o
wrinkle, fold
sacc/i, sacc/o
sac
sacchar/o
sugar
sacr/o
sacrum
saliv/o
saliva
salping/o
uterine (fallopian) tube, auditory (eustachian) tube
-salpinx
uterine (fallopian) tube
san/o
sound, healthy, sane
sangu/i, sanguin/o
blood
sanit/o
soundness, health
saphen/o
clear, apparent, manifest
sapr/o
decaying, rotten
sarc/o
flesh, connective tissue
scalp/o
carve, scrape
scapul/o
scapula, shoulder blade
schiz/o
division, split
scintill/o
spark
scirrh/o
hard
scler/o
sclera, white of eye, hard
-sclerosis
abnormal hardening
scoli/o
curved, bent
-scope
instrument for visual examination
-scopic
pertaining to visual examination
-scopy
visual examination
scot/o
darkness
scrib/o, script/o
write
scrot/o
bag or pouch
seb/o
sebum
secret/o
produce, separate out
sect/o, secti/o
cut, cutting
segment/o
pieces
sell/o
saddle
semi-
half
semin/i
semen, seed, sperm
sen/i
old
senesc/o
grow old
senil/o
old age
sens/i
feeling, sensation
sensitiv/o
sensitive to, affected by
seps/o
infection
sept/o
infection, partition
ser/o
serum
seros/o
serous
sial/o
saliva
sialaden/o
salivary gland
sider/o
iron
sigm/o
Greek letter sigma
sigmoid/o
sigmoid colon
silic/o
glass
sin/o, sin/u
hollow, sinus
sinistr/o
left, left side
sinus/o
sinus
-sis
abnormal condition, disease
sit/u
place
skelet/o
skeleton
soci/o
companion, fellow being
-sol
solution
solut/o, solv/o
loosened, dissolved
soma-, somat/o
body
somn/i, somn/o
sleep
son/o
sound
sopor/o
sleep
spad/o
draw off, draw
-spasm, spasmod/o
sudden involuntary contraction, tightening, or cramping
spec/i
look at, a kind or sort
specul/o
mirror
sperm/o, spermat/o
sperm, spermatozoa, seed
sphen/o
sphenoid bone, wedge
spher/o
round, sphere, ball
sphincter/o
tight band
sphygm/o
pulse
spin/o
spine, backbone
spir/o
to breathe
spirill/o
little coil
spirochet/o
coiled microorganism
splen/o
spleen
spondyl/o
vertebrae, vertebral column, backbone
spontane/o
unexplained, of one's own accord
spor/o
seed, spore
sput/o
sputum, spit
squam/o
scale
-stalsis
contraction, constriction
staped/o, stapedi/o
stapes (middle ear bone)
staphyl/o
clusters, bunch of grapes
-stasis, -static
control, maintenance of a constant level
steat/o
fat, lipid, sebum
sten/o
narrowing, contracted
-stenosis
abnormal narrowing
ster/o
solid structure
stere/o
solid, three-dimensional
steril/i
sterile
stern/o
sternum, the breastbone
stert/o
snore, snoring
steth/o
chest
-sthenia
strength
stigmat/o
point, spot
stimul/o
goad, prick, incite
stol/o
send or place
stom/o, stomat/o
mouth, oral cavity
-stomosis, -stomy
furnish with a mouth or outlet, new opening
strab/i
squint, squint-eyed
strat/i
layer
strept/o
twisted chain
striat/o
stripe, furrow, groove
stric-
narrowing
strict/o
draw tightly together, bind or tie
strid/o
harsh sound
stup/e
benumbed, stunned
styl/o
pen, pointed instrument
sub-
under, less, below
subluxat/o
partial dislocation
sucr/o
sugar
sudor/i
sweat
suffoc/o, suffocat/o
choke, strangle
sulc/o
furrow, groove
super-, super/o
above, excessive, higher than
superflu/o
overflowing, excessive
supin/o
lying on the back
supinat/o
bend backward, place on the back
suppress/o
press down
suppur/o, suppurate/o
to form pus
supra-
above, upper, excessive
supraren/o
above or on the kidney, suprarenal gland
-surgery
operative procedure
sutur/o
stitch, seam
sym-
with, together, joined together
symptomat/o
falling together, symptom
syn-
together, with, union, association
synaps/o, synapt/o
point of contact
syncop/o
to cut short, cut off
-syndesis
surgical fixation of vertebrae
syndesm/o
ligament
syndrom/o
running together
synovi/o, synov/o
synovial membrane, synovial fluid
syphil/i, syphil/o
syphilis
syring/o
tube
system/o, systemat/o
body system
systol/o
contraction
tachy-
fast, rapid
tact/i
touch
talip/o
foot and ankle deformity
tars/o
tarsus (ankle bone), instep, edge of the eyelid
tax/o
coordination, order
techn/o, techni/o
skill
tectori/o
covering, roof-like
tele/o
distant, far
tempor/o
temporal bone, temple
ten/o, tend/o
tendon, stretch out, extend, strain
tenac/i
holding fast, sticky
tendin/o
tendon
tens/o
stretch out, extend, strain
terat/o
malformed fetus
termin/o
end, limit
test/i, test/o
testicle, testis
tetan/o
rigid, tense
tetra-
four
thalam/o
thalamus, inner room
thalass/o
sea
thanas/o, thanat/o
death
the/o
put, place
thec/o
sheath
thel/o
nipple
therap/o, therapeut/o
treatment
therm/o
heat
thio-
sulfur
thora/o, thorac/o
chest
-thorax
chest, pleural cavity
thromb/o
clot
thym/o
thymus gland, soul
-thymia
a state of mind
-thymic
pertaining to the mind, relating to the thymus gland
thyr/o, thyroid/o
thyroid gland
tibi/o
tibia (shin bone)
-tic
pertaining to
tine/o
gnawing worm, ringworm
tinnit/o
ringing, buzzing, tinkling
-tion
process, state or quality of
toc/o, -tocia, -tocin
labor, birth
tom/o
cut, section, slice
-tome
instrument to cut
-tomy
process of cutting
ton/o
tension, tone, stretching
tone/o
to stretch
tonsill/o
tonsil, throat
top/o
place, position, location
tors/o
twist, rotate
tort/i
twisted
tox/o, toxic/o
poison, poisonous
trabecul/o
little beam marked with cross bars or beams
trache/i, trache/o
trachea, windpipe
trachel-
neck
tract/o
draw, pull, path, bundle of nerve fibers
tranquil/o
quiet, calm, tranquil
trans-
across, through
transfus/o
pour across, transfer
transit/o
changing
transvers/o
across, crosswise
traumat/o
injury
trem/o
shaking, trembling
tremul/o
fine tremor or shaking
treponem/o
coiled, turning microbe
tri-
three
trich/o
hair
trigon/o
trigone
-tripsy
to crush
-trite
instrument for crushing
trop/o, -tropia
turn, change
troph/o, -trophy
development, nourishment
-tropic
having an affinity for
-tropin
to stimulate, act on
tub/i, tub/o
tube, pipe
tubercul/o
little knot, swelling
tunic/o
covering, cloak, sheath
turbinat/o
coiled, spiral shaped
tuss/i
cough
tympan/o
tympanic membrane, eardrum
-type
classification, picture
-ula
small, little
-ule
small one
ulcer/o
sore, ulcer
uln/o
ulna (medial lower arm bone)
ultra-
beyond, excess
-um
singular noun ending
umbilic/o
navel
un-
not
ungu/o
nail
uni-
one
ur/o
urine, urinary tract
-uresis
urination
ureter/o
ureter
urethr/o
urethra
urg/o
press, push
-uria
urination, urine
urin/o
urine or urinary organs
urtic/o
nettle, rash, hives
-us
thing, singular noun ending
uter/i, uter/o
uterus
uve/o
iris, choroid, ciliary body, uveal tract
uvul/o
uvula, little grape
vaccin/i, vaccin/o
vaccine
vacu/o
empty
vag/o
vagus nerve, wandering
vagin/o
vagina
valg/o
bent or twisted outward
valv/o, valvul/o
valve
var/o
bent or twisted inward
varic/o
varicose veins, swollen or dilated vein
vas/o
vas deferens, vessel
vascul/o
blood vessel, little vessel
vast/o
vast, great, extensive
vect/o
carry, convey
ven/o
vein
vener/o
sexual intercourse
venter-
abdomen
ventilat/o
expose to air, fan
ventr/o
in front, belly side of body
ventricul/o
ventricle of brain or heart, small chamber
venul/o
venule, small vein
verg/o
twist, incline
verm/i
worm
verruc/o
wart
-verse, -version
to turn
vers/o, vert/o
turn
vertebr/o
vertebra, backbone
vertig/o, vertigin/o
whirling round
vesic/o
urinary bladder
vesicul/o
seminal vesicle, blister, little bladder
vestibul/o
entrance, vestibule
vi/o
force
vill/i
shaggy hair, tuft of hair
vir/o
poison, virus
viril/o
masculine, manly
vis/o
seeing, sight
visc/o
sticky
viscer/o
viscera, internal organ
viscos/o
sticky
vit/a, vit/o
life
viti/o
blemish, defect
vitre/o
glassy, made of glass
voc/i
voice
vol/o
palm or sole
volv/o
roll, turn
vulgar/i
common
vulv/o
vulva, covering
xanth/o
yellow
xen/o
strange, foreign
xer/o
dry
xiph/i, xiph/o
sword
-y
noun ending
zo/o
animal life
zygomat/o
cheek bone, yoke
zygot/o
joined together
-ac
pertaining to
-al
pertaining to
-ar
pertaining to
-ary
pertaining to
-eal
pertaining to
-ical
pertaining to
-ial
pertaining to
-ic
pertaining to
-ine
pertaining to
-ior
pertaining to
-ory
pertaining to
-ous
pertaining to
-tic
pertaining to
-ago
abnormal condition, disease
-esis
abnormal condition, disease
-ia
abnormal condition, disease
-iasis
abnormal condition, disease
-ion
condition
-ism
condition, state of
-osis
abnormal condition, disease
-a
noun ending
-e
noun ending
-um
singular noun ending
-us
singular noun ending
-y
noun ending