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The muscular system of humans contributes approximately what percentage to the adult body weight?
The most common lever systems in the body are those that have the applied force between the fulcrum and the load. These are called ________ levers.
Which eye muscle sends its tendon of origin through a pulley or trochlea before inserting on the globe?
In assessing a stroke patient, you ask her to stick out (protract) her tongue. You note that it deviates to one side. You suspect that damage to the neural control of the ________ muscle has occurred
The entire length of longissimus muscle extends from the mastoid process of the temporal bone to the __________.
The following muscles: ischiocavernosus, coccyges, deep transverse perineal, and bulbospongiosus are found within the?
Skeletal muscles in which the fascicles form a common angle with the tendon are ________ muscles.
The actions of the __________ include compression of the abdomen to assist in forced expiration
During abdominal surgery, the surgeon makes a cut lateral to the linea alba. The muscle that would be cut is the
To keep the humeral head centered within the glenoidal cavity the rotator cuff muscles must be located __________.
in the same plane
The location of the rotator cuff muscles in relation to the glenohumoral joint minimizes the upward pressure against the __________ of the scapula.
Downward dislocation of the humerus from the glenohumeral joint when carrying weight is prevented by the __________.
The angle of which muscle prevents the humeral head from sliding upward out of the joint as the arm is raised?
The rotator cuff is a term used to describe the group of muscles and tendons that stabilize and reinforce the __________.
To allow movement of the tendons within the carpal tunnel zone, each tendon is encased in a __________.
Carpal tunnel syndrome is characterized by inflammation of the __________.
flexor retinaculum and/or tendon sheaths
Of the intrinsic muscles of the hand, which one originates on the hamate bone?
flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle
The semimembranosus __________ the thigh at the hip and __________ the leg at the knee.
The soleus muscle __________ the foot at the ankle and is innervated by the __________.
flexes; tibial nerve
Which muscle is found in the superficial posterior compartment of the calf region?
If the anterior compartment of the lower limb was suffering from "compartment syndrome," which of these muscles would be at risk of injury?
tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus, and extensor digitorum longus
Many medications introduced into the bloodstream cannot directly affect the neurons of the CNS because the astrocytes isolate the CNS by forming
a blood-brain barrier
Puffer fish poison blocks voltage-gated sodium channels like a cork. What effect would this neurotoxin have on the function of neurons?
The axon would be unable to generate action potentials.
If the sodium-potassium pumps in the plasma membrane fail to function, all of the following occur, except the intracellular concentration of potassium
ions will increase.
In the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells participate in the repair of damaged nerves by forming a cellular cord that
directs axonal regrowth
In a typical undisturbed cell, the extracellular fluid (ECF) contains high concentrations of sodium ions and chloride ions, whereas the cytosol contains high concentrations of______ and negatively ______.
potassium ions; charged proteins
The resting membrane potential depends on two factors that influence the magnitude and direction of Na+ and K+ diffusion across the plasma membrane. Identify these two factors
The presence of concentration gradients and leak channels
The plasma membrane is much more permeable to K+ than to Na+. Why?
There are many more K+ leak channels than Na+ leak channels in the plasma membrane.
On average, the resting membrane potential is -70 mV. What does the sign and magnitude of this value tell you?
The inside surface of the plasma membrane is much more negatively charged than the outside surface.
Sodium and potassium ions can diffuse across the plasma membranes of all cells because of the presence of what type of channel?
Ions are unequally distributed across the plasma membrane of all cells. This ion distribution creates an electrical potential difference across the membrane. What is the name given to this potential difference?
resting membrane potential
Ions can move across the plasma membrane in which of the following ways?
through voltage-gated channels as in the action potential, through passive or leak channels by ATP-dependent ion pumps like the sodium-potassium exchange pump, through chemically-gated channels as in neuromuscular transmission
all of the above
Which type of membrane channels are found at label "3"?
voltage-gated Na+ channels, voltage-gated K+ channels
After age ________ the vertebral column continues to elongate, but the spinal cord itself does not.
Samples of CSF for diagnostic purposes are normally obtained by placing the tip of a needle in the
The white matter of the spinal cord contains
bundles of axons with common origins, destinations, and functions.
A viral disease that destroys the cells of the anterior gray horn will
lead to muscle weakness or paralysis
The complex, interwoven network formed by contributions from the ventral rami of neighboring spinal nerves is termed a
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