88 terms

Chemistry and Biochemistry

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Matter
The "stuff" of the universe.
Potential Energy
All forms of energy exhibit both kinetic and potential work capacities.
Energy
Mass-less and does not take up space.
Kinetic Energy
Displayed in the constant movement of the tiniest particles of matter, as well as large objects.
Chemical Energy
Stored in the bonds of chemical substances.
Electrical Energy
Results from the movement of charged particles.
Mechanical Energy
Energy directly involved in moving matter.
Radiant Energy
Travels in waves; that is, it is the energy of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Elements
A limited number of substances.
Periodic Table
A complete listing of elements.
Atoms
Elements are composed of identical partials or building blocks.
Atomic Symbol
One or two letter chemical shorthand.
Protons
Have a positive charge.
Neutrons
Have a neutral charge.
Electrons
Bear a negative charge equal in strength to the positive charge of the protons.
Orbital Model
Modern model of atomic structure.
Atomic Number
Equal to the number of protons it's atoms contain.
Atomic Mass
The sum of the masses of all the protons and neutrons contained in its nucleus.
Atomic Weight
Equal to its atomic mass.
Isotopes
Have the same number of protons and electrons but vary in the number of neutrons they contain.
Radioisotope
Heavier isotopes of certain atoms are unstable and tend to decompose to become more stable.
Radioactivity
Process of spontaneous atomic decay.
Molecule
When two or more atoms combine chemically.
Compounds
When two or more different atoms bind together to form a molecule.
Chemical reactions
Occur whenever atoms combine with or dissociate from other atoms.
Electron shells/ Energy levels
Electrons occupy orbits or generally fixed regions of space around the nucleus.
Valance shell
It's electrons determine the chemical behavior of the atom.
Ionic bond
Form when electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another.
Isotopes
Have the same number of protons and electrons but vary in the number of neutrons.
Radioisotopes
The heavier isotopes of certain atoms are unstable and tend to decompose to become more stable.
Radioactivity
The process of spontaneous atomic decay.
Molecules
When two or more atoms combine chemically.
Compounds
When two or more different atoms bind together to form a molecule.
Chemical Reactions
Whenever atoms combine with or dissociate from other atoms.
Electron Shells/ Energy Levels
Electrons occupy orbits or generally fixed regions of space around the nucleus.
Valance Shell
Its electrons determine the chemical behavior of the atom.
Ionic Bonds
Form when electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another.
Ions
Positive and negative charges are no longer balanced.
Salts
Ionic compound containing cations other than H+ and anions other than the hydroxyl ions (OH-).
Covalent Bonds
Molecules in which atoms share electrons.
Hydrogen bonds
Extremely weak bonds formed when a hydrogen atom bound to one electron-hungry nitrogen or oxygen atom is attracted by another electron-hungry atom, and the hydrogen atom forms a "bridge" between them.
Polar
Having electrical or magnetic polarity.
Synthesis Reactions
Occur when two or more atoms or molecules combine to form a larger, more complex molecule, which can be noted as:
A+B=AB
Decomposition Reaction
When a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules, atoms, or ions and can be noted as:
AB=A+B
Exchange Reactions
Involve both synthesis and decomposition reactions; both bonds are made and broken. This can be indicated as:
AB+C=AC+B
Inorganic Compounds
Lack carbon and tend to be small, simple molecules.
Organic Compounds
Carbon containing compounds.
Electrolyte
Substances that conduct an electrical current solution.
Heat Capacity
Absorbs and releases large amounts of heat before it temperature changes appreciably.
Acids
Have a sour taste and can dissolve many metals or "burn" a hole in your rug.
Bases
Have a bitter taste, feel slippery, and are proton acceptors.
pH Scale
The relative concentration of hydrogen ions in various body fluids is measured in concentration units.
Neutral
A pH of 7, the number of hydrogen ions exactly equals the number of hydroxyl ions.
Buffers
Acid-base balance is carefully regulated by the kidneys, lungs, and a number of chemicals.
Carbohydrates
Includes sugars and starches, contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Monosaccharides
One sugar, and thus monosaccharides are also referred to as simple sugars.
Glucose
Called blood sugar, is the universal cellular fuel.
Disaccharides
Double Sugars, are formed when two simple sugars are joined by a synthesis reaction.
Dehydration Synthesis
A water molecule is lost as the bond forms.
Hydrolysis
As a water molecule is added to each bond, the bond is broken, and the simple sugar units are released.
Polysaccharides
Long, branching chains of linked simple sugars.
Lipids
A large and diverse group of organic compounds.
Triglycerides
Composed of two types of building blocks, fatty acids and glycerol.
Saturated
Fatty acids chains with only single covalent bonds between carbon atoms.
Unsaturated
Fatty acids that contain one or more double bonds between carbon atoms.
Trans Fat
In many margarines and baked products, are oils that have been solidified by addition of hydrogen atoms at sites of double carbon bonds.
Omega-3 Fatty acids
Found Naturally in cold-water fish, appear to decrease the risk of heart disease and some inflammatory disease.
Phospholipids
They differ in that a phosphorus-containing group is always part of the molecules and takes the place of one of the fatty acid chains.
Steroids
Basically flat molecules formed of four interlocking rings thus, their structures differs quite a bit from that of fats.
Cholesterol
The single most important steroid molecule.
Proteins
Account for over 50 percent of the organic matter in the body, and they have the most varied functions of the organic molecules.
Amino Acids
The building blocks of proteins are small molecules.
Structural Proteins
Appear most often in body structures. They are very important in binding structures together and providing strength in certain body tissue.
Globular Proteins
Are mobile, generally spherical molecules that play a crucial role in virtually all biological processes.
Functional Proteins
Because Globular Proteins do things rather than just form structures they are also called Functional Proteins.
Active Site
The reason is that their function depends on their specific structure- most importantly, on the presence of particular collection of atoms.
Enzymes
Functional proteins that act as biological catalysts.
Catalyst
A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without becoming part of the product or being changed itself.
Nucleic Acids
They make up genes, which provides the basic blueprint of life.
Nucleotides
Each consists of three basic parts: a nitrogen-containing base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group/
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
The genetic material found within the cell nucleus. its function it to replicate itself before a cell divides, this insures that all the cells genetic information is the same. To provide the instructions fro building every protein in the body.
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
Located outside the nucleus and can be considered the "Molecular slave" of DNA; that is, RNA carries out the orders for protein synthesis issued by DNA.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
All-important because it provides a form of chemical energy that is usable by all body cells.
Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)
ATP supplies are replenished by oxidation of food fuels.
DNA Fingerprinting
A technique for analyzing tiny samples of DNA taken from semen, skin, blood, and other body tissues.
DNA Electrophoresis
Enzymes that recognize a specific base sequence and cleave the DNA at this location.
Monomers
A molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer.
Polymers
A substance that has a molecular structure consisting chiefly or entirely of a large number of similar units bonded together, e.g., many synthetic organic materials used as plastics and resins.
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