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consumes energy to buld complicated molecules from simpler ones "biosynthetic pathways"
term used by biologists to refer to the potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction
first law of thermodynamics
the energy of the universe is constant: energy sn be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed. also known as the principle of conservation of energy
second law of thermodynamics
every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe
the portion of a system's energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system, as in a living cell
"energy outward" proceeds with a net release of free energy. energy released, spontaneous
"energy inward" one that absorbs free energy from its surroundings.energy required, non spontaneous
the pushing of endergonic reaction that would not occur spontaneously, such as the synthesis of polymers from monomers
the pumping of substances across membranes against the direction of spontaneous movement
such as the beating of cilia, the contraction of muscle cells, and the movement of chromosomes during cellular reproduction
responsible for mediating most energy coupling in cells, and in most cases it acts as the immediate source of energy that power cellular work
chemical groups of the active site into positions that enhance their ability to catalyze the chemical reaction
reduce the productivity of enzymes by blocking substrate from entering active sites
do not directly compete with the substrate to bind the enzyme at the active site . Instead they impede enzymatic reactions by binding to another part of the enzyme. this interaction causes the enzyme molecule to change its shape in such a way that the active site becomes less effective at catalyzing the conversion of substrate to product
a metabolic pathway is switched off by the inhibitor binding of its end product to an enzyme that the inhibitory binding of its end product to an enzyme that acts early in the pathway
an order sequence of events in the life of a cell form its origin until it divides into daughter cells
a region containing specific DNA sequences where the chromatid is attached most closely to its sister chromatid
mitotic (M) phase
includes both mitosis and cytokinesis, usually the shortest part of the cell cycle
In a dividing cell, mitotic (M) phase alternates with interphase, a growth period. the first part of the interphase (G1) is followed by the S phase, when the chromosomes duplicate; G2 is the last part of interphase. In the M phase mitosis distributes the daughter chromosome to daughter nuclei and cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm producing two daughter cells, the relative duration of G1, S, and G2 may vary
a subcellular region containing materials that functions throughout the cell cycle to organize the cell's microtubles. spindle microtubules start here
a structure of proteins associated with specific sections of chromosomal DNA at each centromere
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