Terms in this set (21)
A system of government in which political authority is held by the people. Democracies typically feature constitutional governments with majority rules, a belief in individual worth and in equal rights for all people, freedom of expression, political freedom, and freedom of choice. There are two types of democracies
True Democracy (direct or pure democracy):
A system of government in which decisions are made directly by the people. Thus, all the people of the community must vote on every decision. Since this is very difficult to do outside of small communities, most democracies are representational
Representational Democracy (Republic)
A system of government which the people choose political leaders to voice their ideas and beliefs as well as make policy decisions on their behalf. It is this system that is currently used in the United States.
A system of government in which the people have little, if any, control. In some cases, government officials are not elected by the people. In others, elections are unfair or manipulated by those in control. The power in a dictatorship is concentrated in the hands of a single person or a small group of people. If a single person holds the power, the government is an autocracy. If a small group of people holds the power, it is called and oligarchy. If all political power is concentrated in the hands of a single political party and no political alternatives are legally tolerated, it is called a single-party system or single-party rule. The former Soviet Union is an example of this type of system. Note that advocates of this type of system would not classify it as a dictatorship
Only individuals of a particular religion are allowed to vote or participate in government. Religion is the mandate of the law. Usually the religious leader is also the country's leader. It is not important how the person got to his or her position of power. What is important is that all decisions are based on that person's interpretation of the religious text(s) used by that country. Iran is a theocratic nation.
Those that rule are chosen on the principle of merit. The idea is that people will be rewarded on the basis of talent or merit and that the more talented and thus meritorious will come to occupy the more important positions in society.
Literally 'rule by the rich', the term is used to denote a wide range of situations where a group of individuals have more power and influence in government because of their wealth.
All legal power is held by the national, or central government. Local governments, such as those for provinces and cities, have no independent powers and are simply local representatives of the national government. Their job is to carry out decisions made by the national government. Local levels might have the power to execute the law, but all power to make and interpret the law is at the national or central level. The United Kingdom, Israel, and Japan are examples of unitary systems.
Powers are divided up among national, state and local governments. Each level has the power to make, enforce, and interpret the law. In this system, some powers belong only to the national government, others only to state and/or local governments, and still others are shared by all three. The majority of the power is at the national level. The United States, Germany, India and Malaysia are all examples of federal systems.
This is where independent states join together to accomplish common goals. There may be no central government, but the members of the confederation may set up an organization to carry out agreed-upon policies. In a confederacy, there may be power at the national level, but the majority of the power is in the member States.
The legislative branch which makes the law, and the executive branch, which carries out (enforces or executes) the law, are separate and independent of each other. The executive branch is headed by a president who is chosen independently of the legislature. Each has their own powers and members of one branch may not be members of the other. The United States and France both use a Presidential system.
The chief executive, often called the prime minister or premier, is chosen by the parliament, or legislature. The prime minister and other officials appointed from the parliament make up the executive. If the executive loses the parliament's support, a new prime minister, cabinet member and other formerly agreed upon leaders must be chosen, and/or a new legislative election is held.
Traditional authority rests on history, myth, ritual and religious texts. Governments that have power because of traditional authority are theocracies and monarchies. People with traditional authority have power because their religion says they should have it or because their mother or father had it (bloodline).
Charismatic authority is founded on a belief in a leader's exceptional qualities and inspirational mission. People with charismatic authority can persuade you to give them power through the strength of their personality. (once they have it, they often maintain it through the use of force.) A dictator might have power because of his or her charisma, but a democratically elected President could have charismatic authority along with our last type of authority rational-legal.
Rational-legal authority is founded on democratic principles and a framework of law to which all individuals and institutions are subject. It is rational (makes sense) that the President of the United States has power because we voted for him. It is also legal for the President to have the power he does because those powers are given to him by the Constitution (a legal document).
In a traditional economy the basic economic questions are answered based on tradition, habit, custom and/or religious belief. Individuals are not free to make decisions according to what they want or would like to have
Command Economy (Directed or Planned Economy)
In a command economy, the basic economic questions of what and how to produce and distribute goods and services are answered by the government.
Strong Command Economy (Communism)
an economic system in which the government owns or controls the means of production (resources, land and capital) and the distribution of goods and services. In its purest form Communism is similar to some hunting and gathering societies in that all of the resources were owned in common.
Moderate Command Economy (Socialism)
an economic system in which a capitalist and free market economy is balanced by government ownership and control of many of the means of production and distribution of services. Socialist countries directly provide many of the people's needs, such as health care. They believe in the redistribution of wealth so that all of its citizens may have equal opportunities to attain similar social and economic levels. Countries that practice socialism need not be democratic, but most are.
In a market economy the basic economic question are answered by the actions of individuals and businesses. A market system may also be referred to as capitalism.
an economic system based on private ownership of the means of production and the distribution of services in which the goal is to accumulate wealth through profit.