In binary ﬁssion, the parent cell disappears with the formation of two equal-sized offspring; in contrast, a bud is often much smaller than its parent, and the parent remains to produce more buds.
Describe steps of budding
1. DNA is replicated 2. One daughter DNA molecule is moved into bud 3. Young bud leads to 4. Daughter cell
The arrangement of Prokaryotic cells result from what two aspects of division during binary fission?
Planes in which cells divide Separation of daughter cells
Produced by Gram-positive Bacillus and Clostridium
Defensive strategy against unfavorable conditions
What is the basis of Modern Prokaryotic Classification?
genetic relatedness of rRNA sequences
Three domains of Modern Prokaryotic Classification?
Archaea Bacteria Eukarya
Give three common features of Archaea
1. Lack true peptidoglycan 2. Cell membrane lipids have branched hydrocarbon chains 3. AUG codon codes for methionine
Give three methods of reproduction for Archaea
binary fission budding fragmentation
True or False Archaea are known to cause disease
FALSE Archaea are NOT known to cause disease (not relevant to the human health)
require temperatures over 80ºC
Depend on greater than 9% NaCl to maintain integrity of cell walls
Largest group of archaea
One of primary sources of environmental methane
Methanogens living colons of animals
Convert carbon dioxide, hydrogen gas, and organic acids to methane gas
Extremophiles & Methanogens belong to which domain?
believed to be similar to earliest bacteria Autotrophic
Deeply branching bacteria
contain photosynthetic lamellae which allows them to absorb light for anabolism
Rod-shaped, obligate anaerobes Important in medicine (toxins) and industry (forms endospores)
Facultative or obligate anaerobes Lack cell walls Associated with pneumonia and urinary tract infections
many common in soil
contaminates milk and meat products
grows in the body but rarely causes disease
cause numerous diseases
Streptococcus and Enterococcus
one of the most common inhabitants of humans
Pleomorphic (different shaped) aerobes and facultative anaerobes. Produces metachromatic granules which store phosphate Examle C. diphtheriae
Aerobic rods that sometimes form filaments. Slow growth partly due to mycolic acid in its cell walls Example M. tuberculosis and M. Leprae
Form branching filaments resembling fungi. Important genera include Actinomyces, Nocardia, Streptomyces
thrive in environments with low nutrients Pathogenic: gonorrhea, meningitis, PID, whooping cough
Some reduce sulfer Others infect other gram- bacteria
Cause blood poisoning and ulcers
Cause fetal blindness, pneumonia and STDs
Cause syphilis and Lyme disease
Can cause abdominal, pelvic and blood infections
The type of reproduction in prokaryotes that results in a palisade arrangement of cells is called a. pleomorphic division. b. endospore formation. c. snapping division. d. binary ﬁssion.
c. snapping division.
The thick-walled reproductive spores produced in the middle of cyanobacterial ﬁlaments are called a. akinetes. b. terminal endospores. c. metachromatic granules. d. heterocysts.
Which of the following terms best describes stiff, spiral-shaped prokaryotic cells? a. cocci b. bacilli c. spirilla d. spirochetes
Endospores a. can remain alive for decades. b. can remain alive in boiling water. c. live in a state of suspended animation. d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Halobacterium salinarium is distinctive because a. it is absolutely dependent on high salt concentrations to maintain its cell wall. b. it is found in terrestrial volcanic habitats. c. it photosynthesizes without chlorophyll. d. it can survive 5 million rad of radiation.
a. it is absolutely dependent on high salt concentrations to maintain its cell wall.
Photosynthetic bacteria that also ﬁx nitrogen are a. mycoplasmas. b. spirilla. c. bacteroids. d. cyanobacteria.
Which genus is the most common anaerobic human pathogen? a. Bacteroides b. Spirochetes c. Chlamydia d. Methanopyrus
Flexible spiral-shaped prokaryotes are a. spirilla. b. spirochetes. c. vibrios. d. rickettsias.
Bacteria that convert nitrogen gas into ammonia are a. nitrifying bacteria. b. nitrogenous. c. nitrogen ﬁxers. d. nitriﬁcation bacteria.
c. nitrogen ﬁxers.
The presence of mycolic acid in the cell wall characterizes a. Corynebacterium. b. Listeria. c. Nocardia. d. Mycobacterium.