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plot triangle

an outline of the plot of a story, contains; exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, resolution


background information presented in a literary work

point of view

who's telling the story, first or third person


only knows some information


all knowing


main character


anyone or thing that goes against the protagonist


changes, usually round


no change, usually flat


a realistic character that has many different character traits; fully developed; three-dimensional.


a character that, having only one or two traits, is easily described and one-dimensional (like a cardboard figure).

direct characterization

the writer tells us directly what a character's personality is like

indirect characterization

the character is revealed through their personality, appearance, words, actions, and effect on others




who, what when, how, why

rising action

events before climax, events leading up to the climax

dramatic climax

the point of greatest interest or intensity to the story

technical climax

turning point at which the opposing forces have a decisive confrontation from which they cannot escape their fates.


most exciting moment of the story; turning point

falling action

events after the climax, leading to the resolution






repeat event


when reality is different from appearance; the implied meaning of a statement is the opposite of its literal or obvious meaning, contrast between expectation and reality

situational irony

unexpected event

verbal irony

character says one thing and means another

dramatic irony

readers know more than characters

contents of the exposition

point of view, characterization, conflict

contents of rising action

all actions that lead up to the climax

contents of falling action

all actions following the climax

contents of resolution

theme, parrellism, irony

types of points of view

two type; limited and omnicient

types of characterization

two types; direct and indirect

types of conflict

five; man versus: self, man, nature, society, and supernatural

types of irony

three types; situational, verbal, dramatic

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