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280 terms

human growth and development mid term

STUDY
PLAY
Dr. Widaman is researching the cultural differences in school performance between Japanese and American children. He is comparing math scores between two groups of fifth graders. One of his groups is from Japan and the other group is from the United States. Dr. Widaman is conducting a __________ study.
cross cultural
The Apgar scale is a method used to assess the health of newborns. A score of 3 would:
signal an emergency because the baby's survival is in doubt
Maternal stress is negatively correlated with a baby's:
language development
Dr. Tepper-Harmon believes that life-span development cannot be studied without considering biological, socioemotional, and cognitive dimensions. Dr. Tepper-Harmon believes that development is:
multidimensional.
Children in the preoperational stage of development lack the ability to:
perform operations (internalized mental actions)
In which of the following countries is a child most likely to be born to a mother who was assisted by a midwife as opposed to a physician?
holland
Kyesha is 80 years old and is typical of a growing number of older adults. Kyesha MOST LIKELY lives:
alone
The information-processing approach to development is concerned mainly with:
the manipulation, monitoring, and strategizing of information.
The key developmental processes in life-span development include all of the following EXCEPT:
physical/sensory processes.
Which of the following is NOT a gene-linked abnormality mentioned by your textbook?
autistic disorder
The doctor has just told Luka and Steve that their baby scored below 3 on the _______ given within minutes of birth. As a result, the baby will be rushed to intensive care for treatment and observation.
apgar scale
While Sally's mother was pregnant with her, she smoked and drank alcohol, which adversely affected Sally's lung development. After Sally was born, she was placed into an environment with two parents who smoked. As Sally continued to develop, she was diagnosed with asthma, a breathing disorder. The development of this disorder could be explained by the concept of:
the epigenetic view
By the end of the fifth month, the fetus weighs approximately ______.
16 pounds (1 ounce)
Development is best defined as a pattern of movement or change that:
begins at conception and continues throughout the human life span
The study of human evolution was first explored by:
charles darwin
At what period of prenatal development do neurons begin to develop connections with each other?
around 23 weeks of development near the age of viability
Tzu-Chiang is 55 years old, is currently going back to college, and is enrolled in a college algebra course. Tzu-Chiang is surprised that he is performing well in the course despite not having a formal math class for over 30 years. Researchers would not be surprised by his performance because it has been shown that development is:
plastic
If you studied the attitudes of elderly people today, you might find that most believe it is better for women to stay at home than to work. This is their attitude, probably because these people grew up during the early and middle part of the twentieth century rather than because they are elderly per se. This is an example of a(n) __________ effect.
cohort
Michael and Jessica are having their first child and have told their physician they would like a rooming-in arrangement during their hospital stay. This means that:
Jessica's newborn baby will stay with her in her room
Many older adults become wiser by being able to call on experience, yet their performance on tests of cognitive speed declines. This can be explained by which of the following life-span characteristics?
multidirectionality
Which of the following is one of the contributions of the cognitive theories noted by your author?
They emphasize the individual's active construction of understanding.
By the end of the fifth month, the fetus weighs approximately ______.
16 ounces (1 pound)
Gustav spends a lot of time thinking about the world as it is now and as it could be if everyone took more personal responsibility for environmental and social conditions. Jean Piaget would say that Gustav is probably in the __________ stage of development.
formal operational
Which of the following is the period of development that occurs 2 to 8 weeks after conception?
embryonic
The idea that no age period dominates development highlights the life-span perspective that development is:
lifelong
In 1981 Steven Jay Gould concluded that in most domains of human functioning, biology allows a broad range of ________ possibilities.
cultural
After completing a study, a researcher must inform all the participants of the complete purpose and the results of the study. This mandated by what APA ethical concept?
debriefing
According to behaviorists, what is the only correct entity that should be included in scientific research?
observable actions
A(n) __________ is a group of people who are born at a similar time in history and share similar experiences.
cohort
Emanuel is a 25-year-old African American. He is constantly anemic because of an abnormality in his blood. Emanuel has:
sickle cell animea
Which of the following is the quickest way to gain information from a large amount of people?
survey
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a disorder that results in the inability to metabolize ______, which is an amino acid.
phenylalanine
According to evolutionary theory, there is a specific reason that certain animals live in the regions that they do. Polar bears, for instance, are found only in the Arctic regions of the world. An evolutionary theorist would say that the polar bear was best adapted for this type of environment, unlike a grizzly bear, who would freeze to death. In this case, the polar bear is a good example of:
natural selection
The difference between a control group and an experimental group is that the:
control group does not receive the independent variable.
John Bowlby's work in attachment showed that an infant's attachment to a caregiver has important influence over the life span. Bowlby further suggested that attachment should take place:
over the first year
All of the following are alternative possible contributors to problems found in the children of cocaine users, EXCEPT:
mental illiness
A phenotype can consist of ________ as well as ________ characteristics.
physical; psychological
Kangaroo care with preterm infants has been found to stabilize all of the following, EXCEPT:
sleeping
Sandra excels in reading and spelling but struggles with mathematics. She is shorter than her peers and was born without ovaries. Sandra most likely has:
turner syndrome
Tingfeng We was a victim of child abuse as a young boy, but he did not grow up to become an abuser. Instead, he leads a fulfilling family life. This is an example of which characteristic of development?
change
Dante is 2 years old. His mother took him to the doctor and discovered that he had gained 5 pounds and had grown 2 inches since his last physical exam. This is an example of the role of __________ processes in development.
biological
Sheila is pregnant and has a family history of spina bifida. Which test would be used to determine whether her fetus has this defect?
maternal blood screening
Which of the following is a weakness of the survey method of research?
People are more likely to give socially acceptable or desirable answers.
Rachel has always enjoyed reading. Now that she is a parent, she provides her daughter with many books to read, hoping the child also will learn to enjoy reading. How do behavior geneticists refer to this type of correlation between heredity and environment?
passive genotype-environment correlation
Whereas Jean Piaget emphasized the biological processes of cognitive development, Lev Vygotsky emphasized the effects of __________ on development.
social interaction and culture
Maternal stress is negatively correlated with a baby's:
language development
The second stage of Erik Erikson's psychosocial development theory is:
autonomy versus shame and doubt
________ drugs act on the nervous system to alter states of consciousness, modify perceptions, and change moods.
psychoactive
Development is best defined as a pattern of movement or change that:
begins at conception and continues throughout the human life span.
Women have a ________ chromosome pairing, and men have a ________ chromosome pairing.
XX;XY
This is a prenatal medical procedure where a sample of amniotic fluid is withdrawn by syringe and tested for chromosomal or metabolic disorders.
amniocentesis
The doctor has just told Luka and Steve that their baby scored below 3 on the _______ given within minutes of birth. As a result, the baby will be rushed to intensive care for treatment and observation.
apgar scale
Mary's parents fight quite often over money. In an attempt to stop the fighting and to save the family money, Mary decides that she will not ask for anything for her birthday or any holiday. Mary's actions are being expressed in which of Urie Bronfenbrenner's systems?
microsystem
Kangaroo care with preterm infants has been found to stabilize all of the following, EXCEPT:
sleeping
The developmental period that runs from approximately 40 years of age to about 60 years of age is:
middle adulthood
It is virtually impossible to locate the genetic factors involved in most psychological characteristics because of the concept of:
polygenic inheritance.
According to Urie Bronfenbrenner, this contextual environment consists of the influences exerted by the culture in which an individual lives.
macrosystem
An interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps us to explain phenomena and make predictions is known as a(n):
theory
Constance is 75 years old and still very active. She gardens, hikes, plays chess, and is learning to play the piano. She exercises daily to stay fit. She loves reading, listening to music, and playing with her grandchildren. Her hearing and eyesight are not what they used to be, and she is not as steady on her feet as when she was younger. She wears a hearing aid, eyeglasses, and sensible shoes to minimize these losses. Researchers would say that Constance is a good example of how development includes:
growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss
By the end of the fifth month, the fetus weighs approximately ______.
16 punces (1 pound)
Juan-Carlos was born full term but was underweight for his gestational age. He would be considered:
small for date
As a criticism of evolutionary psychology, Albert Bandura proposed a:
bidirectional view.
John Bowlby's work in attachment showed that an infant's attachment to a caregiver has important influence over the life span. Bowlby further suggested that attachment should take place:
over the first year
Dr. Bursten recently conducted research on the drinking habits of teenagers. To get his study subjects to be as open and honest with him as possible, he assured them that according to the ethical guidelines of the APA, all information that is collected is:
confidential
Paul Baltes claimed that nonnormative life events could provide an important context for life-span development. With this concept, the term "nonnormative" refers to an event that:
is not likely to happen to very many people
The second stage of Erik Erikson's psychosocial development theory is:
autonomy vs shame and doubt
Dr. Burial is currently conducting research on sexual orientation. When he gets the participants to sign up, he informs them that they will be looking at a series of pictures to gather information on the appeal of differing clothing combinations. The fact that Dr. Burial is not telling the participants the true purpose of the study indicates that he is using:
deception
Sandra excels in reading and spelling but struggles with mathematics. She is shorter than her peers and was born without ovaries. Sandra most likely has:
turner syndrome
The study of human evolution was first explored by:
charles darwin
Studies show that there is a positive correlation between the number of cute names (e.g., "Snookums" and "Pookie") couples have for each other and their self-reported feelings of love. This research tells me that:
if my sweetheart has a lot of cute names for me, my sweetheart also tells researchers that he/she loves me a lot
With what sex-linked syndrome does a man have an extra X chromosome?
Klinefelter syndrome.
Informed consent in research contains all of the following, EXCEPT:
detailed hypotheses
Natural childbirth consists of all of the following, EXCEPT:
medication
All of the following trends in older adulthood can be seen in recent decades, except:
older adults are more likely to be married
By the time a baby is born, (s)he will have approximately _________ neurons.
100 billion
The concept of discontinuity is characterized by all of the following, EXCEPT:
quantitative change
Dan and Michelle have been having difficulty conceiving a child, so they've decided to try in-vitro fertilization to start a family. One of the risks of this assisted reproductive technology that they should know about is that:
25-30 percent of conceptions that occur using IVF result in multiple births (e.g., twins, triplets, etc.)
The fetal period begins ________ months after conception and lasts until birth.
2
Which of the following is more likely to occur in the child of a woman who smokes?
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Which of the following is NOT a drawback to longitudinal research?
stability over time
During which time period does the interaction with peers tend to increase the most dramatically?
. between the ages of 18 and 24 months
In the visual cliff experiment by Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk (1960), most babies encouraged to crawl onto the deep side of the visual cliff would:
not crawl onto the cliff side.
Children with low activity levels and somewhat negative attitudes are classified as:
slow-to-warm-up children.
Built-in reactions to stimuli that govern an infant's actions are known as:
reflexes
Miranda developed a basic sense of mistrust during infancy. Her parents bickered a lot and separated, and Miranda was often lost in the shuffle. According to Erik Erikson, Miranda:
may learn to trust other important people later in her life, but they will need to demonstrate their trustworthiness.
Which of the following is MOST likely to be a child's first word?
dog
Two-year-old Anita has learned the word "dog" to identify the family pet Rover. Now Anita says the word "dog" when she sees any animal. Anita has __________ these animals into her existing scheme.
assimilated
According to the concept of perceptual motor coupling, which of the following statements should be TRUE regarding the motor development of a baby who is born blind?
Because this baby has a reduced ability to perceive his surroundings, his motor skills should develop at a slower rate
All of the following are risk factors for SIDS, EXCEPT:
being male
Not until an infant is ________ will his or her visual acuity approximate that of an adult with normal vision.
1 year old
Petria is trying to help her young infant regulate his emotions. She can best do this by:
providing a nurturing environment.
Nine-month-old Tyler is placed in front of a mirror with a spot of rouge on his nose. Tyler will most likely:
touch the spot on the mirror, because he wonders why that other child has a spot on his nose
In the Strange Situation, Jermaine used his mother as "secure base" as he actively explored the playroom. Mary Ainsworth would most likely classify Jermaine as:
securely attached
According to a survey conducted in 2004, the most common vegetable that was fed to babies by the age of 15 months of age was:
french fries
Baby Melissa has developed a sucking scheme. She learned that to get food, she must suck on her mother's breast. Now her mother has begun to introduce solid foods with a spoon. Melissa immediately sucks on the spoon. This is an example of:
assimilation
How do child-care programs for children in low-income families compare with child care available to children in families of higher economic status?
A majority of child care in the first three years of life is of unacceptably low quality, but infants from low-income families have lower-quality child care than infants from higher-income families.
Gross motor is to __________ as fine motor is to _________.
large muscles; small muscles
According to Mary Rothbart and John Bates, unlike early theoretical models of temperament, the more recent emphasis is on:
infants' ability to control their arousal
Babies have three types of cries. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
the hunger cry
Which of the following statements about reciprocal socialization is TRUE?
Children socialize parents just as parents socialize children.
Marcos is 16 and eager to graduate from high school and go on to college. He has a clear sense of what he wants for a career and has well-defined values. Which of the following best accounts for Marcos' sense of identity?
He developed autonomy during childhood.
In spite of modern criticism of the first theories of attachment and its significance in healthy development:
there is ample evidence that security of attachment is important to development.
An infant's ability to inhibit or minimize the intensity of his or her emotions is called:
emotional regulation
Jean Piaget believed that children's thinking in one stage is __________ that in another stage.
qualitatively different from
Jean Piaget's concept of grouping isolated behaviors into a higher-order system is called:
organization
"Want ice cream," "fall down," and "Mommy give drink" are all examples of:
telegraphic speech.
Behaviorists believe that language is:
a series of responses acquired through reinforcement.
At what age do children first show fear when a new person enters their environment?
by six months of age
Which of the following statements about temperament is TRUE?
Temperament is a biologically based but evolving aspect of behavior
__________ motor skills involve large-muscle activity.
gross
Juanita notes that some days with her baby are harder than others. "When I'm rested, he laughs and plays, and then I feel even better. But when I'm tired, it seems that he is crankier than ever, and then I get even crankier, and it just gets worse and worse!" These differences are the result of:
reciprocal socialization
All of the following are benefits of breast-feeding, EXCEPT:
prevention of circulatory problems
A child's expansive vocabulary is directly correlated with his or her parents':
verbal interactions with the child.
Caregivers' attempts to help infants soothe their emotions influence:
neurobiological regulation of emotions.
The ecological view of perception states that perception:
brings us into contact with the environment so that we can adapt to it.
At what age does separation protest peak?
13-15 months
The "visual cliff" is used to measure:
depth perception.
Which of the following occurs FIRST in development?
reflexive smile
People remember very little about what happened in their lives before about age:
2 years to 3 years old
Jerome Kagan's views on attachment stress:
the child's temperament and genetic characteristics
During which time period does the interaction with peers tend to increase the most dramatically?
between the ages of 18 and 24 months
According to the work of Meltzoff, how much time can pass between when an infant observes an action and imitates it?
as long as a few days
Kyoko is 13 months old and can understand about 50 words but can say only about 10 words. Kyoko's __________ vocabulary is more developed than her __________ vocabulary.
receptive;spoken
Baby Kendra is presented with two nursing pads. One comes from her mother, and the other has not been used. Which one will Kendra probably prefer?
Whether she shows a preference depends on Kendra's age
Beth, who is 6 months old, has a 17-year-old mother who is not sure about how to interact with her. Beth's mother is inconsistent, sometimes responding to Beth's needs and sometimes not responding to her needs. Beth most likely will be a(n) _______ infant.
insecure resistant
DeCasper and Spense (1986) wanted to find out if babies would prefer a story after birth if their mothers had read the story aloud to them when they were fetuses. What did they find?
The infants preferred the prenatal story over another story
Nine-month-old Tyler is placed in front of a mirror with a spot of rouge on his nose. Tyler will most likely:
touch the spot on the mirror, because he wonders why that other child has a spot on his nose.
Stranger anxiety is negatively correlated with:
proximity to mother.
Jerome weighed in at 12 pounds when he was born. Compared to other newborns (in the United States), he is:
considerably heavier than most babies.
Marcus and Debra used to go out quite often. Since their baby's birth, they have preferred spending time at home playing with the baby or going to places where they can stroll with the baby leisurely and window-shop. This change in Marcus and Debra's behavior is an example of:
the infant socializing the parents
Which of the following occurs FIRST in development?
reflexive smile
What is the main difference between most child-care policies available in the United States and in Sweden?
level of inclusion of the father
The __________ method of studying whether an infant can distinguish between two objects is done by measuring the length of time the infant looks at an object.
visual preference
Juanita notes that some days with her baby are harder than others. "When I'm rested, he laughs and plays, and then I feel even better. But when I'm tired, it seems that he is crankier than ever, and then I get even crankier, and it just gets worse and worse!" These differences are the result of:
reciprocal socialization.
Habituation __________ responsiveness to stimuli.
decreases
A loss or impairment of language ability caused by brain injury is called:
aphasia.
Child-directed speech is the:
language spoken in a higher pitch than normal with simple words and sentences
In the United States, parents tend to prefer children with a(n) ___________ temperament, whereas in China, a(n) _________ temperament is more highly valued.
active;inhibited
Mary Rothbart and John Bates (2006) believe that which of these is an important dimension of infant temperament?
self-regulation
People remember very little about what happened in the early years of their lives. This is called:
infantile amnesia
In the United States, parents tend to prefer children with a(n) ___________ temperament, whereas in China, a(n) _________ temperament is more highly valued.
active; inhibited
The peak of synaptic overproduction in the prefrontal cortex takes place at around __________ of age.
1 year
Kara is 18 months old. Kyle is 24 months old. Kara is probably able to use about __________ words; Kyle is probably able to speak about __________ words.
50;200
According to Jerome Kagan (2002, 2003), temperament can be classified by focusing on:
differences between children who are shy and timid and those who are sociable and bold.
A criticism of attachment theory is that:
other factors may be more important to an infant's adaptations to life.
Janine impatiently grabs the door handle from her toddler daughter, quickly opens the door, and hurries the little girl through. Erik Erikson would say that Janine's daughter:
will develop a sense of shame and doubt if this type of interaction occurs consistently
The interpreting of sensory information is called:
perception
A smile that does not occur in response to external stimuli is called a(n):
reflexive smile
Babies have three types of cries. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
the hungry cry
Damon asks his son to look at a picture book and name the objects he sees. Damon is using __________ to help his son learn language.
labeling
What is thought to influence the overproduction and pruning of synapses in the brain?
heredity and enviroment
The ecological view of perception states that perception:
brings us into contact with the environment so that we can adapt to it.
Not until an infant is ________ will his or her visual acuity approximate that of an adult with normal vision.
1 year old
For cognitive change to occur, these two processes must work in concert as the child experiences considerable movement between the states of cognitive equilibrium and disequilibrium.
assimilation and accommodation
Nine-month-old Tyler is placed in front of a mirror with a spot of rouge on his nose. Tyler will most likely:
touch the spot on the mirror, because he wonders why that other child has a spot on his nose.
The results of the large National Longitudinal Study of Child Care indicate that:
the influence of families and parenting is not weakened by extensive use of day care
Baby Dewayne moves his trunk and arms, but he is unable to control his hands and fingers. This is an example of the __________ pattern of development.
proximodistal
Beth, who is 6 months old, has a 17-year-old mother who is not sure about how to interact with her. Beth's mother is inconsistent, sometimes responding to Beth's needs and sometimes not responding to her needs. Beth most likely will be a(n) _______ infant.
insecure resistant
Three-month-old Zoey looks up at her mother and smiles. Researchers call this type of smiling:
social smiling
Diane notices that sudden stimulation causes her 2-month-old to arch his back, throw back his head, fling out his arms and legs, and then rapidly close them to the center of his body. Diane's baby is exhibiting the __________ reflex.
moro
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
Girls are more likely than boys to associate together in larger groups.
According to Dunn (2007) there are three important aspects to sibling relationships. Which of the following is not one of those points?
the age differences that exist in the relationship
According to research, children start to understand others in terms of psychological traits (e.g., "my teacher is nice") starting around what age?
4 to 5 years
Researchers believe that after the age of 6 or 7 years, children become more reflective and less impulsive in their thinking, because they learn to pay less attention to what is _______ and more attention to what is ______.
salient; relevant
Which of the following is NOT one of the stated goals of a developmentally appropriate practice type of education?
better physical health
Approximately __________ of gay men are parents.
10%
Ursula just brought home her report card. She earned Cs and Ds in all of her classes. Ursula's mom's first response was "Oh, you must be very disappointed." Then, the two of them sat down and tried to determine why she was having difficulty and what they could do to help her get her grades up. They decided that Ursula would start seeing a tutor after school. Ursula's mom is most likely a(n):
authoritative parent
A cognitive structure that consists of a network of associations that guides and organizes an individual's perception is called a:
schema
Constructive play:
combines sensorimotor/practice play with symbolic representation
Brendan is 3 years old. His parents are concerned because he is always running and jumping on things. He cannot seem to sit still. Even when watching his favorite movie on TV, he still fidgets, bounces, and wiggles around. It is especially frustrating when Brendan will not sit still through dinner. Given what we know about child development, we would advise Brendan's parents to:
be patient and recognize that Brendan is developing as a normal 3-year-old
Young Ori has just been misbehaving at home, and his mother is very angry with him. She yells at him for his poor behavior, spanks him on the backside, and sends him to his room. According to your authors, which of the following is a possible undesirable outcome of this sort of reaction?
Ori will not understand what behaviors should have occurred, because this sort of punishment does not present better options.
Social cognitive theory provides several important principles to help us understand moral behavior of children. Which one of the following is NOT one of those principles?
Punishment will always increase the modeling of moral behavior.
Children cannot conserve because they cannot yet:
reverse
The drawings that 3-year-old Sally creates tend to be rather inventive and include scribbled designs that represent people, houses, cars, dogs, and so on. Which Piagetian stage/substage of cognitive development is Sally in?
symbolic function substage
Alicia is enrolled in a kindergarten where she spends much of her time in unstructured activity. She plays with different toys she chooses, and her teacher facilitates rather than teaches. What approach is Alicia's kindergarten using?
Montessori
A young child might be heard saying, "That tree pushed the leaf off and it fell down." The child's belief that the tree is capable of action is referred to as:
animism
In short-term memory, individuals retain information for:
15 to 30 seconds
According to Erik Erikson, what is the "great governor" of initiative?
conscience
Which of the following has been shown to be related to the development of advanced emergent literacy skills in children?
the education level of the mother
Intuitive thought is to _______ as symbolic function is to ______.
reasoning; mental representation
Which statement below summarizes Erik Erikson's view of how guilt, initiative, and conscience operate during the early childhood period?
Children's consciences make them feel guilty about some of the initiatives that they take.
In general in the United States, African American and Latino family orientations differ from White family orientations in that:
the extended family plays a greater role in African American and Latino families
Which of the following parenting styles has high demands and low responsiveness?
authoritarian
Which of the following age groups of children is the most susceptible to the possibility that a suggestion will distort their memories?
preschoolers
Which of the following countries has the highest percentage of single-parent families?
untied states
Dante is encouraged by his parents to control himself and delay gratification. His parents give him some say in the rules of the house and are more likely to talk to him when he makes a mistake than to use physical discipline. His parents are most likely:
of a higher socioeconomic status
At what age do children have a solid understanding of false beliefs?
4-5 years
Lev Vygotsky believed that children who frequently use private speech are:
more socially competent
The theory of _______ refers to the idea that children can begin thinking about their own thought processes.
mind
The social role theory of gender differences suggests that:
gender differences result from the contrasting roles of women and men in most cultures
When teachers adjust their level of support and guidance to the level of skill of the student, it is called:
scaffolding
Centration inhibits the ability to categorize items because it prevents one from:
considering combinations of features
Which of the following countries has the most favorable attitude toward corporal punishment?
united states
Her pediatrician has just told Karly that her 4-year-old son, Manuel, has gained 6 pounds in the last year. Karly should:
understand that this is normal.
Four-year-old Della is taken to her pediatrician for a checkup by her mother. He notes that her body mass index is in the 95th percentile for her age group. Which of the following labels might the pediatrician use to refer to Della's size?
overweight
Approximately __________ of gay men are parents.
10%
Between ages 3 and 6 years, which part of the brain grows the fastest?
the prefrontal cortex
Alicia is enrolled in a kindergarten where she spends much of her time in unstructured activity. She plays with different toys she chooses, and her teacher facilitates rather than teaches. What approach is Alicia's kindergarten using?
montessori
Children who grew up in gay and lesbian families usually self-identify themselves as:
heterosexual.
The psychoanalytic theory of gender states that children should identify with the gender identity of the same sex parent at about age:
5 or 6 years
Jean Piaget believed that children below the age of _______ years do not have concrete operational thought.
7
The Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires that students with disabilities receive:
an individualized education plan (IEP)
Micah has been rejected by most of her peers, whereas Ezra is neglected by them. Which of the following would be expected about these two children?
Micah will probably be more disruptive in school and at home than Ezra
To investigate the nature of moral thought, Lawrence Kohlberg presented children with a story in which a character named Heinz faces a moral dilemma: the only way to save his mother's life is to steal an experimental drug he cannot buy. When Ellie is read the story and asked whether Heinz should have stolen the drug, she states, "No, it is against the law to steal. The husband should find another way to get the drug." Ellie is in the _______ stage of moral development.
social systems morality
Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory and Howard Gardner's theory of intelligence are examples of the idea that:
intelligence consists of a number of specific abilities.
Which of the following is the clearest type of evidence favoring Lawrence Kohlberg's claims about the sequence of moral development?
Stage 4 reasoning does not appear in children but occurs in a majority of adults.
Compared to girls, boys are __________ times more likely to be classified as having a learning disability.
3
Jermaine and Latoya want to help their daughter develop high self-esteem. What should they do?
teach her to face problems realistically and cope with them
Middle childhood is a period in which some control is transferred from parent to child. This process involves:
coregulation
Two identical glasses are filled to the same level with juice. A child then watches as the juice from one glass is poured into a taller, thinner glass. A child who is capable of concrete operational thought might say:
"It's still the same amount of juice—you can tell by just pouring it back."
In which stage of Lawrence Kohlberg's scheme of moral development is a person most likely to imitate the moral standards of others?
mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity
Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development has been criticized in four areas. Which of the following is NOT one of those areas?
Culture and education exert less influence on children's development than Piaget believed.
Erik Erikson's fourth stage of development, appearing during middle and late childhood, is called:
industry versus inferiority.
How is Lawrence Kohlberg's theory culturally biased?
In some cultures, high levels of moral reasoning derive from different values than those that form the basis of Lawrence Kohlberg's claims
If intelligence is assumed to be normally distributed, which of the following would you expect to find in the overall population?
more people of moderate intelligence than of high or low intelligence
Bellah sits in the back of the room, and very few of the children in class even know his name. Bellah's sociometric status is probably:
neglected.
On average, children gain ______ pounds per year during middle and late childhood.
5 to 7
Robert Sternberg and Howard Gardner's theories of intelligence are alike in that both:
hypothesize several different types of intelligence.
All of the following are changes in emotional development during middle and late childhood, EXCEPT:
improvement in the ability to interpret subtle social cues.
Which of the following is an example of bilingual education in a U.S. school?
Maria's first language is Spanish, so she has a teacher who speaks Spanish during some of her classes until Maria can learn more English.
Approximately ________ of stepfamily couples stay remarried.
one third
A child is presented with two identical balls of clay. The experimenter rolls one ball into a long, thin shape; the other remains in its original ball. The child is then asked if there is more clay in the ball or in the long, thin piece of clay. If the child answers the problem correctly, the child most likely is in which stage of Piaget's cognitive development theory?
concrete operational stage
Who among the following would have good spatial abilities?
an architect
In which stage of Lawrence Kohlberg's scheme of moral development is a person most likely to imitate the moral standards of others?
mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity
Kang has been diagnosed with ADHD, and Kang recently started a common form of drug therapy. Kang is probably receiving a _____.
stimulant
Although many think that television is uniquely responsible for the deficit in exercise that children are getting in the United States, your authors point out that increased __________ is also contributing to this problem.
computer usage
Recent research suggests that __________ is the most effective treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
a combination of medication and behavior management
Micah has been rejected by most of her peers, whereas Ezra is neglected by them. Which of the following would be expected about these two children?
Micah will probably be more disruptive in school and at home than Ezra
The fact that well-adjusted females used to be thought of as dependent, nurturing, and uninterested in power and well-adjusted males were thought of as independent, aggressive, and powerful reflects deeply rooted:
gender stereotypes
Tavonte has been having serious problems in his math class. As hard as he and his teachers have tried, he is having major difficulty grasping the basic concepts of arithmetic functions. Which learning disorder might Tavonte be suffering with?
dyscalculia
Carol Gilligan reports that males tend to use a(n) _______ perspective when making moral judgments, whereas females tend to use a(n) _______ perspective.
justice;care
Jeff is independent, flexible, cheerful, friendly, assertive, tactful, comfortable with making decisions, sensitive to the feelings of others, and sympathetic. Jeff can best be described as:
androgynous
Children who are diagnosed with __________ have deficits in social relationships; abnormalities in communication; and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior.
autistic disorder
As Trey grows from early to middle childhood, the issues that he and his parents discuss and disagree about will begin to include:
household chores
If intelligence is assumed to be normally distributed, which of the following would you expect to find in the overall population?
more people of moderate intelligence than of high or low intelligence
Which of the following children is statistically the most likely to be overweight?
Anna, a 12-year-old Latina girl.
What is the percentage of children who were involved in daily physical education programs in the United States in 1999?
20
Older children are better at coping with stress than younger children for all of the following reasons, EXCEPT:
they are better able to deny stressful events.
Middle childhood is a period in which some control is transferred from parent to child. This process involves:
coregulation
According to William Pollack (1999), boys learn that the expression of emotion is something that should be minimized, and that they should act "tough" to assert their masculinity. He refers to these messages as:
boy code
Studies have shown that most people who are academically gifted or who have a superior talent in some area tend to:
be more mature and have fewer emotional problems than the average person.
Carol Gilligan has criticized Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development because:
it does not include a role for reasoning about relationships and concern for others
Is it possible to develop an intelligence test that is truly culturally fair?
No. There are too many different variations in test-takers' cultures to address them all.
Which mind-set considers the possibility that qualities can change and improve with effort over time?
growth
Jeff is independent, flexible, cheerful, friendly, assertive, tactful, comfortable with making decisions, sensitive to the feelings of others, and sympathetic. Jeff can best be described as:
androgynous.
Latoya has been struggling with her writing assignments. Frustrated, she slams her notebook closed and says, "I am just no good at writing and that won't ever change." This statement reflects a _________ mind-set.
fixed
According to William Pollack (1999), boys learn that the expression of emotion is something that should be minimized, and that they should act "tough" to assert their masculinity. He refers to these messages as:
boy code
The correlation between self-esteem and school performance is:
moderate
Tavonte has been having serious problems in his math class. As hard as he and his teachers have tried, he is having major difficulty grasping the basic concepts of arithmetic functions. Which learning disorder might Tavonte be suffering with?
dyscalculia
Comparing the math abilities of males and females shows that:
students in grades 2 through 11 had no significant differences in math scores.
Both Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg agree that:
cognitive stages are the underpinnings of morality.
Compared with novices, experts have:
better memory for their area of expertise.
Jack is cutting up a pizza for himself and his little brother, Craig. He starts to cut it into eight pieces, but his brother says, "Don't cut it into so many pieces; I can't eat that many." Jack laughs but obeys. Craig's reactions characterize _______ thought, and Jack's reactions characterize _______ thought.
preoperational; concrete operational
Across childhood and adolescence, research suggests that:
girls engage in more prosocial behavior.
_______ develop(s) more rapidly during early childhood, and _______ develop(s) more rapidly during middle and late childhood.
Short-term memory; long-term memory
Research comparing the whole-language and phonics approaches to language has shown that:
children can benefit from both, but phonics instruction needs emphasis.
Approximately ________ of stepfamily couples stay remarried.
one third
Although many think that television is uniquely responsible for the deficit in exercise that children are getting in the United States, your authors point out that increased __________ is also contributing to this problem.
computer usage
What is the percentage of children who were involved in daily physical education programs in the United States in 1999?
20
During elementary school years, most children double their:
strength capabilities.
Children who are bullied have increased feelings of:
all of these
Which of the following is NOT one of the functions of friendship that is proposed by Gottman and Parker?
healthy conflict
During elementary school years, most children double their:
strength capabilities
What is the best explanation for why minorities earn lower scores on IQ tests?
environment
The fact that well-adjusted females used to be thought of as dependent, nurturing, and uninterested in power and well-adjusted males were thought of as independent, aggressive, and powerful reflects deeply rooted:
gender stereotypes
The ability of a friendship to help a child see him/herself as competent, attractive, and worthwhile serves which of Gottman and Parker's functions of friendship?
ego support
Which of the following does NOT help explain why children from Asian cultures show superiority in mathematical abilities when compared with American children?
Asian parents punish their children more severely for poor math grades.
Sally's mental age is 12, but her chronological age is 9. Sally's IQ is:
133
Tiesha's behavior is controlled by external rewards and punishments reflecting which level of Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development?
preconventional reasoning
Early intervention programs designed to help provide an intellectually stimulating environment for children have been found to be most effective for:
poor children and those whose parents have little education.
Jean Piaget believed that children below the age of _______ years do not have concrete operational thought.
7
Which of the following children is statistically the most likely to be overweight?
Anna, a 12-year-old Latina girl.
Fewer than 1% of mentally retarded Americans are considered to be:
profoundly retarded
All of the following are changes in emotional development during middle and late childhood, EXCEPT:
improvement in the ability to interpret subtle social cues
According to the text, the concept of intelligence can be defined as:
all of these in combination
Researchers have found that increased aerobic activity is associated with increases in which important cognitive activity in children?
planning
Recent trends suggest that the number of children diagnosed and treated for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has:
substantially increased
Jaymon is a third-grader asked by his teacher to describe himself. What is the most likely description Jaymon will give?
"I am friendly."
The correlation between self-esteem and school performance is:
moderate
Why are there more elementary and secondary school children living in stepfamilies than there are infants and preschool children?
It takes time to marry, have children, divorce, and remarry.