72 terms

Art 100- Val Carter- University of Idaho - Exam 1

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Public art historical perspective
What is important in society at a particular time
- cave paintings (15,000- 16,000 BC)
Ancient public art
Laocaux Cave Paintings in Southern France
Sphinx 2500 BC - guard pyramids
Pyramids in Egypt - divine, tomb
Arch of Constantine 313 CE - Rome
Column of Trajan
attributed to Apollodorus 313 CE, Marble
Celebrate victories in Roman civilization
100ft tall, depicts Roman Army
Scroll commemorates the defeat of the Dacian's.

-spiral staircase to the top
- 625 ft long if unwound
- 113 AD
- Purpose:
- to show strength of Rome
- Rome is superior to all other countries
- something to look at
Renaissance
- 1134-1220
- Cathedral
- Religious overtone, Gothic tower bigger/taller than Roman tower
- hyper-realistic of who people were
Medieval to 19th Century
- 1647-1652
- 11' 6" St. Theresa (vision and ecstasy)
- Mixed media - most theatrical effects
- Shift to modern materials
- window created to shine light on sculpture (St. Theresa)
- Purpose: the Thinker, Bronze
Modern Approaches to Public Art
Sculptural freedom - realism, different iterations in different places
Claes Oldenburg and Pop Art
- public money used for art (ex: Eraser, New York)
- Pop Art: popular art, images, popular items, popular culture
- Replications of Objects - clothespin
Giant Trowel
- Claes Oldenburg
- Steel painted blue
- 144 by 46 inches
- Netherlands
-looks like a giant shovel
- Pop art
- 12 meters - height
Tilted Arc
- Richard Serra
- cor-ten steel
- 1981
- 12 by 120 feet
- Federal Plaza, New York City
- meant to obstruct (Artist's intent)
- Removed***
- 1 big chunk of steel, curved, removed from public
- 120 feet long, 12 feet high
- site specific
David Smith
- sculpture, public artist
- geometric
- auto accident caused death
- metal working
- Art Student's League - studied painting
- New skill: welding stainless steel
- really formal
Jack Mackie - Northwest Connections
- Dance steps on Broadway (Seattle, WA)
- Many awards
- 8 dance step patterns
- interactive
- fences
Visual Elements of Design
- Line, shape, value, color, light, texture, space, mass/form
Robert Mapplethorpe
born in 1946 in Floral Park, Queens
Pratt Institute in nearby Brooklyn
Photographer
died of AIDS in 1989

- y portfolio meant to be shown with x portfolio
- Lisa Lyon - first woman body builder
- bodies to be seen with flowers and vases
The Names Project/The AIDS Quilt
Began in 1987 in San Fransisco
44,000 individual 3-by-6-foot memorial panels, sewn by friends and family

- Memorial of those that died with AIDS
- Names for March, wall of names looked like patchwork quilt
- immediate response
- displayed in National Mall in DC (1,900 panels)
- Reading of names at quilt display
- $500,000 raised
- 6,000 panels at the end of the tour
Ways to Create Illusion of Space
- foreground
- make important people larger, others smaller (non-important people)
The Dead Christ
- Andrea Mantegna
- 1501
- tempera on canvas
- Not much foreshortening in this painting (feet a lot smaller than they should be) (not a good example of foreshortening)
Foreshortening
- things in foreground much larger (try to show something directly in front of you)
- exaggerating things in space for them to come forward
- Ex: 3D movie
Characteristics
- meaning in color, overlapping, size relationship
The Last Supper
- Leonardo da Vinci
- Refectory Monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italy
- 1495-1498
- Italian Renaissance
- oil and tempera on plaster
- ability secondary
- Had to be cleaned and repaired
- Fresca
- used egg in original
- 1 point perspective
Leonardo da Vinci
- how to draw in space so people could understand it
- one of the wealthiest princes
The Wedding Dance
- Pieter Brueghel the Elder
- c. 1566
- 46 7/8 by 61 inches
- People in back small, big arms, out of proportion with bodies
- more descriptive part of scene
- overlapping, contrast (light and dark) - relate to scale
- Perspective - triangle edge condition - help force to back area, tree brings it all together
Vanishing Point
in linear perspective, the point in the work where the parallel lines appear to converge
Proportion
refers to the size relationship between parts of a whole or 2 items perceived as a whole.
Scale
the size of an object in comparison to some constant or normal size
- shallow space, equal ground
Atmospheric Perspective
the way we actually see the world. distant objects appear less focused, bluer. Reborn during the Renaissance. Da Vinci first to write about it

- The rules state: objects farther away, disappear back into white
- overlapping of objects further away
- white removes visual power and starts receding
Madonna of the Rocks
- Leonardo da Vinci
- c. 1495-1508, 75 by 47 inches, oil on panel
- Italian Renaissance
- Mountains in background with lake
- as farther away, mountains disappear
-example of atmospheric perspective
2 point perspective
2 vanishing points
3 point perspective
3 vanishing points
Form
-media (canvas, wall, steel, etc.)
Subject Matter
- literal meaning
Content
- meaning behind it, what the art says to you
The Two Fridas
- Frida Kahlo, 1939
- Frida had physical pain - many surgeries
- Mexican dress
- Form: painting (oil on canvas)
- Subject Matter: double portrait of Frida herself (self-portrait)
- Content: rejection of Frida by Diego Rivera (heartbreak and pain)
Oeuvre
- A substantial body of work consisting of of the life works of an artist
Hue
- pure color on the outside (intensity)
Intensity
- on outside - look at the hue for intensity
Value
- relative key (from light to dark, or relationship between color)
- High Key - very light
- Low Key - very dark
The Oxbow
- Thomas Cole
- Connecticut River near Northhampton)
- Oil on canvas, 51 by 76 inches, 1836
- Light and dark
- Content: storm and light other side (ominous)
Monochromatic
- 1 color - many shades of that color
Analogous
- pair of close colors (close/adjacent on color wheel)
Triadic
- Red, Yellow and Blue (ex.)
- 3 colors across from each other (equally spaced on color wheel)
Complementary
- 2 colors across from each other (opposing colors on wheel)
Naturalistic Color
- makes it look as close to nature as possible
Arbitrary Color
- Not really describing any thing
Le Favs
- wild beasts (because of brush strokes and use of color)
The picture plane
an imaginary plane which is located between the "eye point" or oculus and the object being viewed and is usually coextensive to the material surface of the work. It is ordinarily a vertical plane perpendicular to the sightline to the object of interest.
Linear perspective
creates convincing depth. Principle 1: forms farther away from viewer feel smaller. Principle 2: parallel points tend to recede to one point on the horizon
- Davinci credited with creating this
- developed during Renaissance

Rules:
- horizon line, vanishing point, as objects get closer to vanishing point, objects get smaller
Perspective
the art of drawing solid objects on a two-dimensional surface so as to give the right impression of their height, width, depth, and position in relation to each other when viewed from a particular point.
Pictorial space
- depends on space
1. overlap of images
2. use of linear perspective
3. Key (lightness and darkness)
4. Position in the picture plane
Representational art
Realism - being human, society (not photo realism), most common form of representational art
Romanticism - takes real things and adds personal emotions
Example - The Heart of the Andes by Frederic Edwin Church
Aesthetics
a set of principles concerned with the nature and appreciation of beauty, especially in art.
Folk Art
-Functional, untrained, generation to generation, thrown out materials
-native and tribal people
Fine Art
-trained in school of art, began in the Renaissance (Medici Family/ Church)
- not conventional everyday use (no real function)
-Aesthetics and content (meaning behind art)
Environmental Art
Earth Art, or Earthworks, is an expansion of installation art, in that it not only provides an environment, but it also leaves the gallery or museum to interact directly with the natural world
Does not try to duplicate the world exactly, but instead reduces the world to what the artist sees as its essential qualities
It is usually concerned with the formal qualities- lines, shape, color, and texture
Impressionism
- 1860's - rejection of Renaissance views, French Revolution
- Color and light, everyday moments
- frowned upon at the time
- place and how light influences things
- Monet - - most plein air paintings
Expressionism
- art involves distortion
- The distortions usually go beyond the point of believability, i.e., they would not exist visually in the real world
- stresses psychological and emotional content. the intent is to touch the viewers emotions and to provoke an emotional response in the viewer
- it is often a reflection of the artist's emotional or psychological state of mind
- like abstract art, it can be either representational or non representational depending on the degree to which the subject matter is recognizable.
Surrealism
a 20th-century avant-garde movement in art and literature that sought to release the creative potential of the unconscious mind, for example by the irrational juxtaposition of images.

- Dreams, unconscious mind, things outside of reality, spontaneous thought
- Salvador Dolli
Iconography
the identification, description, and interpretation of subject matter in art
- visual image to tell a story
The Spiral Jetty
- Robert Smithson, Great Salt Lake, Utah
- earth work, 1970
- NW shore, pilgrimage, documentation of time
- pushes idea of "what is art"?"
- salt bed with lots of rocks
Three Flags
- Jasper Johns
- 1958
- encaustic on canvas
- drafted into army, less grand, shrinks
- McCarthy period
- symbolism
- Subject Matter: Flag
- Content: growing or shrinking (personal perception)
Vietnam Memorial
- Maya Lin
- Washington, D.C. 1981-1983
- polished black granite, each wing was 246' long
- controversial
- most visited site in D.C.
- 493 1/2 feet total, 10.1 feet high (highest point)
- granite came from Southern India
- Names on walls (5 names on each line)
- Opening up Earth - introspective progression through time
- Names listed were listed by date of death, not alphabetical
David
- Michelangelo
- 1501-1504
- Italian Renaissance
- Marble
- Reflecting story in relationship to Florence
- represents Florentine public
- interest in human form, tense with power and presentation
Crafts
useful function and makes objects
Desginers
do not make object, but designs things on object
The Umbrellas Japan - U.S.A.
- Christo and Jeanne-Claude
- 1984-1991
- joint, blue and yellow umbrellas
- 12 miles in Japan
- 16 miles in California
- In October 1991, one umbrella unfurled and killed 1, they tried to dismantle the umbrellas, and another died from electrocution from trying to dismantle the umbrellas
The Heart of the Andes
- Frederic Edwin Church
- 1859
- Oil on canvas
- Naturalistic colors
- People in background near cross - people insignificant (romanticism)
Plein air
Done on site
Abstraction
- Involves simplification
- bare essentials
- does not try to duplicate the world exactly, but instead reduces the world to what the artist sees as its essential qualities
- usually concerned with the formal qualities -- line, shape, color and texture
Baby Girl
- Marisol Escobar
- 1963
- wood and mixed media
- More than 6 ft tall, tells a story about a baby, figure on lap
- personal meaning to the artist
Luncheon on the Grass
- Edouard Manet
- 1863
- oil on canvas
- 7' by 8' 10"
- Musee d'Orsay
- Tame now, outrageous then
- Rejected by salon in Paris - Napolean created Solan de Refussee for all refused art
- Based on old painting by Raphael
- can see artist's touch (bad) (poor craftmanship)
- confronting norms of the time
Fountain
- Marcel Duchamp
- 1917
- Philadelphia Museum of Art
- Father of dadism -- Dada: illogical/ nonsensical art movement
- Ready Made
- based on ready-mades (something to buy at store, everyday use objects)
- Urinal signed with R. Mutt (R means dog) 1917
- supposed to show that all things can be art
- Asked the question "what is art?"
- opened the world to larger potential
Bushfire and Corroboree Dreaming
- Erna Motna, 1988
- Acryllic painting, traditional (Australian) abstraction but natural landscape
- Large circles: campfires, weapons to kill animals for celebration
Lotto Rug
-Anatolia Konya
-16th century
-textile
-the pattern makes it esthetically pleasing to the eye
-Started in central Turkey then spread everywhere.
-pattern is an example of texure

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