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64 terms

Weathering and Erosion Full Set

Exfoliation Dome
Process: A magma chamber hardens under ground and formed into a pluton. The pluton is then put under pressure and pushes back against the pressure. Resulting in sheeting on the surface of the rocks.
Continental Divide
Imaginary line. To west, water will flow to Pacific and to east, water will flow to Atlantic
Spheroidal Weathering
Idea that edges of objects tend to weather first, therefore rounding the object
Frost Wedging
When water freezes it expands about 10% in volume. Therefore in cold climates, the most weathering and erosion is done by frost weathering. Water seeps into cracks of rocks, freezes, expands, and eventually the rock will break apart.
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
formed from mechanically weathered sediments and rock fragments
Chemical Sedimentary rocks
form when minerals are precipitated from a solution or left behind when a solution evaporates
when the sediments are put under pressure, the water is squeezed away. minerals are left behind. Resulting in sedimentary rocks.
Sedimentary Rock made up of angled pebbles
Sedimentary Rock made up of rounded pebbles
Sedimentary Rock made up of cemented sand
Process of turning something into a rock
Cleopatra's Needle
Large monument in desert in Egypt for 3,000 years, moved to NYC, after 100 years very weathered by chemicals (acid rain and pollution)
Wind Gap
A pass carved through a rock outcrop by flowing water
any rock that has been shaped by the wind
Checkerboard Mesa
Fossilized Sand Dune
Valle Grande
is a 12-mile-wide collapsed volcanic caldera in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico.
collapsed volcanic crater
Ponderosa Pine
Bark smells like vanilla or sugar cookies
Crater Lake
Large caldera created in Oregon from emptied magma chamber (collapsed) after eruption
Lava Dome
a bulbous mass associated with an old-age volcano produced when thick lava is slowly squeezed from the vent, lava domes may act as plugs to deflect subsequent gaseous eruptions
broad, flat-topped landform with steep sides; smaller than a plateau
a flat topped rock or hill formation with steep sides, highly weathered Mesa
Talus Slope
Pile of debris at the base of a cliff, roughly 45 degree angle
Columnar Jointing
Basalt lava flows contract and may fracture in roughly hexagonal columns.
Volcanic Neck
solid igneous core of a volcano left behind after the softer cone has been eroded
Differential Weathering
Varying rates of weathering resulting from some rocks in an area being more resistant to weathering than others.
Cattle Guard
grate in the road which cattle will not walk over
Mushroom Rock
Rock shaped like a mushroom, created when wind blown sand erodes the base of the rock
Desert Pavement
A layer of coarse pebbles and gravel created when wind removed the finer material.
Erosion from wind lifting up and removing loose material, moves finer particles in the air and rolls the larger grains
Monument Valley
a region of the Colorado Plateau characterized by a cluster sandstone buttes, including the mitten rocks
Cap Stone
A rock that protects other rocks beneath it
a column of weathered rock
Desert Varnish
Is the dark coating which is found on exposed rock surfaces in arid environments, contains magnesium
A carving or inscription on a rock.
Ice Wedging
Water seeps into cracks, freezes and expands
forming or depositing in layers
the remains (or an impression) of a plant or animal that is preserved in a rock
Organic Sedimentary Rock
Sedimentary rock that forms from the remains of plants or animals.
Box Canyon
A box canyon is a small ravine or canyon with steep walls on three sides, allowing access and egress only through the mouth of the canyon. ...
Magma Chamber
an underground pool that holds magma, below a volcano
Volcanic Pipe
brings magma from magma chamber towards the surface
outer surface of rocks will break off due to reduction in pressure fom where it formed
A falling mass of snow that contains rocks, dirt and ice
Mass Movement
the downhill movement of rock and soil because of gravity
Slow, imperceptible movement of material downhill (curved Trees)
White Death
Whispered Nickname for an avalanche
Surface Hoar
forms when snow is exposed to the air, crystals get larger. Creates weak layer of snow.
Overhang of snow that is created as wind blows snow over the top of a mountain
Snow slab
Large block of snow that breaks free when a weak layer of snow is below stong layer(s)
Sedimentary Rock made up of cemented mud particles
organic sedimentary rock formed from cemented pieces of shell
broken pieces of rock, categorized by size
when pressure forces water out of pore spaces of sediment
the depositing of river carried sediments on the ocean floor. largest sediments are deposited closest to shore
Removal and transport of weather materials by natural processes
The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface.
Mechanical Weathering
The type of weathering in which rock is physically broken into smaller pieces
Chemical Weathering
the process in which rock is broken down by changes in its chemical makeup
the wearing down of rock particles by friction due to water or wind or ice
the chemical reaction of oxygen with other substances
Acid Rain
precipitation that is more acidic than normal because of air pollution
chemical decomposition in which a compound is split into other compounds by reacting with water
The process by which sediments are separated by size as they move down through the water column