CJUS 5470 Chapter Four
Terms in this set (28)
Theories of delinquency that focus on the individual level
The view that biology is responsible for criminal behavior.
The view that one's environment or experiences are responsible for criminal behavior.
A body type that is soft and round with small bones, short limbs, and soft smooth skin.
A body type that is fragile, thin, and delicate, with poor muscles and weak bones.
A body type that is muscled and strong, with an upright, hard, sturdy physique.
The learning of behaviors and norms from the groups with which we have contact.
A reward for behavior, for example the pleasurable feeling that people might feel they get from doing drugs.
An event that strengthens behavior because the behavior stops a negative event that an individual wants to stop.
A punishment that is introduced or added to decrease a behavior.
Something that is taken away, instead of introduced, as a punishment.
Bonds to conformity that keep us from engaging in socially unacceptable activities.
The "emotional" component of the social bond that signifies that individuals care about what others think.
The "rational" component of the social bond that signifies that individuals weigh the costs and benefits of their behavior.
The component of the social bond that suggests the more time one spends engaged in conforming activities, the less time one has available to deviate.
The component of the social bond that suggests the stronger one's awareness of, understanding of, and agreement with the rules and norms of society, the less likely one will be to deviate.
Life course theory
A theoretical perspective that considers the entire course of human life (from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood to old age) as social constructions that reflect the broader structural conditions of society.
Classification of individuals according to their pattern of offending over time.
Short term changes in social roles within long term trajectories, such as dropping out of school, divorce, and desistance from delinquency.
Techniques of neutralization
Rationalizations used by individuals in order to engage in delinquency.
Denial of responsibility
The belief that outside forces compel a person's behavior, and thus the person refuses to take responsibility for his or her actions.
Denial of injury
A neutralization technique in which the person denies that anyone has been harmed by her or his actions.
Denial of the victim
A neutralization technique in which a person justifies his or her behavior by stating that the person who was victimized deserved it, or that because of circumstances, the delinquent act committed needed to occur.
Condemnation of the condemners
A neutralization technique in which a person tries to turn the tables on those who condemn or disapprove of his or her behavior by condemning them.
Appeal to higher loyalties
A neutralization technique in which a youth who has committed a delinquent act justifies it on the basis of a higher calling or purpose.
A type of coping strategy that focuses on actions that might help to reduce the strain itself.
A type of coping strategy that involves trying to reinterpret the strain to lessen the impact of that strain.
A type of coping strategy that is an attempt to lessen the negative emotions that might arise from the strain.