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80 percent

Percentage of Americans that belong to voluntary groups or associations

Social capital

relationships that improve our individual lives by giving us social connections to solve common problems


place people are most likely to socialize with friends than in previous generations

Pluralist theory

this is not a tenet:
policy-making is an elite business, staffed by the powerful and highly educated

generally negative

Most Americans have a _____________ impression of interest groups.

making money an issue in politics

All of the following are positive aspects of interest groups' political activity EXCEPT:

doctors and lawyers

represented by professional organizations

Less likely

Children from working class families are __________ to have been socialized to participate in interest groups.

purposive incentive

Belief in a group's cause is an example of which type of incentive?


interest group that has over 35 million members

Political action committees

separate entities formed by interest groups whose specific goal is to raise and spend money to influence election outcomes


In elections, PAC funding shapes electoral outcomes by tending to favor this type of candidate

12 percent

percentage of U.S. workers belonging to unions

AFBF (American Farm Bureau Federation)

Which of these groups represents agricultural interests?

free rider problem

The problem of someone deriving a benefit from the actions of others

Moral Majority

religious interests organization founded by Jerry Falwwell in the 1970's

Ulysses S. Grant

American president that coined the term lobbyist

issue network

Created when lobbyists employ former members of government

iron triangle

interaction of mutual interests involving interest groups, government officials, and members of Congress


What year included the supreme court decision of Citizens United v. Federal election Commission, which drastically altered the political landscape by allowing corporate and union election financing?

political party

an organization of ideologically similar people that nominates and elects its members to office

broad issue

Generally, political parties have ____ concerns.

access to gun ownership

Which of the following issues is the central focus of the National Rifle Association?


What year saw the supreme court ban southern states from formally excluding African Americans from primary voting

women, minorities, and students

which groups are more warmly received by political parties today than in the past

differences on ideological and policy issues

media attention on political parties tend to highlight their:

sometimes does not match

People's party identification ________ their voting preferences.

ethnic minorities and women

most likely to vote for Democrats

larger role for state governments

not a key Democratic position

environmental protection

not a key Republican position


Since _______, a majority of women have voted for the Democratic party.

country and local party

With respect to real political power, which of these groups is/are the most important component(s) of a party organization?

raising money

In recent years, what has been the most important role of the national party?


Once elected into office, the party in government exerts _____power.

Different parties control different branches of government

Divided government occurs when:


Term used by political scientists to describe a shift in party allegiances or electoral support

Thomas Jefferson

Which founding father, as founder of the Anti-Federalists, instigated the process of direct communication with voters?

John Adams

Whose defeat in the federal election of 1804 marked the end of the Federalist Party?


issue that dominated party politics in the 1850's


During the era of political machines, party leaders used _______ as a device to reward political supporters


Which party backed the presidential campaign of Theodore Roosevelt in 1912?

four times

How many times Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected president


For much of its existence, the United States has had a _______ system.

declined significantly

over the last several decades, political scientists have agreed that the power of political parties has:

lack of viable alternative

What factor do scholars identify as supportive of the current two-party system?

Green Party

Which of the following parties is an example of an issue advocacy party?

States Rights Party

Which of the following parties is an example of a splinter party?

Tea Party

Which grassroots movement has formed across America since 2009?

internet and cell phones

voters increasingly rely on these for political information and knowledge

watching t.v.

not considered social networks

primary election, candidate nomination, general election

Chronological order of the following

North Dakota

does not even require voters to register in order to participate in elections

locally selected delegates

decides which candidate receives the national party nomination in U.S. presidential primaries


today, party voters select delegates at state party meetings known as this

open primary election

anyone, even unregistered voters

closed primary election

only registered voters of members of that party

the states

control the timing of primary elections


since 2007, has included Super Tuesday, day which ,most presidential primary elections take place


In the U.S. most general elections are held in this month

50 percent plus 1

what percentage of votes must a candidate receive in a primary election to avoid a runoff election

state legislatures

In a referendum, voters in a state can vote for or against a measure proposed by whom?

citizens' and interest groups

typically sponsor initiatives, or initiative petitions

recall election

type of election that allows voters to cut an officeholder's term short


state's voting system came under enormous scrutiny because of paper perforations known as chads, in 2000 presidential election

party column ballot

ballot that generally leads to the coat tail effect, where down ballot candidates benefit from the popularity of those listed above them

at least 35

age limit for presidential office

at least 30

age limit for senatorial office

at least 25

age limit for election to the House of Representatives

age, residency, and citizenship

factors that determine eligibility and qualifications for elected office at the state level

age and gender

not considered informal qualifications for political office

paid campaign consultants

today, most political campaigns are conducted and managed by:


which of the following conducts focus groups to determine candidate strengths and weaknesses

$500 million

Using online donations and other internet-based fundraising strategies, how much money did Barack Obama raise in his 2008 presidential campaign?

Federal Election Campaign Act

Which of these pieces of legislation created the Federal Election Commission, the agency responsible for enforcing federal campaign finance laws?

soft money

contributions to political parties designated for so called party building activities


large corporation's collapse led to passage of McCain-Feingold Act


tax exempt groups tht raise money for political activites


how many electors there are in the electoral college

education level

most important in determining voter participation


year that 18 year-old's were granted the right to vote in the U.S.

over 90 percent

percentage of incumbents, or those already holding office, generally win re-election to the House of Representatives and the Senate

increasingly negative

over the last few years, many political campaigns have grown

for over one year

in the U.S., presidential campaigns generally last:


Passage of the National Voter Registration Act, or "Motor Voter Act", in 1993 has had a _________ effect on voter registration and turnout.

cell phone video camera

captured shooting and death of Neda-Agha Soltan, who was shot protesting the outcome of the Iranian elections in 2009

print media

was the first media technology to offer people the opportunity to express political views publicly


animated children's show that includes an episode that discusses the issue of censorship


Until the _____, most Americans could not read or write

one penny

Early in the nineteenth century, advances in the technology allowed the sale of newspapers for:


where the battleship Maine was when it exploded in February 1898

Upton Sinclair

Expose of the meat packing industry led to the establishment off the food and drug administration

broadcast television

media technology dominated between the 1940's and 1980


technology that is not considered new media


How many newspaper publishers and editions most American cities have today


how many newsroom supervisors were women in 2009


how many fireside chats or radio addresses to the country Franklin Roosevelt completed during his time as president

1970's and 1980's

When talk radio emerged from behind television


the year the Federal Communications Commission repealed the fairness doctrine, which had required stations to provide equal time to all sides regarding public issues and equal access to all candidates for public office


practice of aiming media content at specific segments of the public


quality of looking good on television

John F. Kennedy

first president to display telegenic qualities

digital divide

unequal access to computer technology

where average U.S. citizen lives

what has not changed because of internet


debuted in 2005, enhances civic engagement by allowing citizens to access and post video that includes political content

over four hours a day

amount of time Americans spend online today

blogs and websites

media that has succeeded in attracting young, liberal voters

Jesse Ventura

independent that used e-campaigning to win the governorship in Minnesota in 1999


form of new media considered by its users to be the most influential on politics


media organization that is an example of media convergence

blogs and websites

source of political information almost entirely unmonitored for accuracy

1.8 billion

amount of people globally that currently use the internet

free speech

most Americans see the internet as a vehicle and an example of the principle of:

mostly liberal

traditionally, media outlets and journalists have been labeled:

good news reports

not considered a powerful media audience attractor


best describes the evolutionary development of the U.S. media industry ownership over the last several decades

net neutrality

the idea that internet traffic should flow without oversight or interference

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