Exam 2

80 percent
Percentage of Americans that belong to voluntary groups or associations
Social capital
relationships that improve our individual lives by giving us social connections to solve common problems
place people are most likely to socialize with friends than in previous generations
Pluralist theory
this is not a tenet:
policy-making is an elite business, staffed by the powerful and highly educated
generally negative
Most Americans have a _____________ impression of interest groups.
making money an issue in politics
All of the following are positive aspects of interest groups' political activity EXCEPT:
doctors and lawyers
represented by professional organizations
Less likely
Children from working class families are __________ to have been socialized to participate in interest groups.
purposive incentive
Belief in a group's cause is an example of which type of incentive?
interest group that has over 35 million members
Political action committees
separate entities formed by interest groups whose specific goal is to raise and spend money to influence election outcomes
In elections, PAC funding shapes electoral outcomes by tending to favor this type of candidate
12 percent
percentage of U.S. workers belonging to unions
AFBF (American Farm Bureau Federation)
Which of these groups represents agricultural interests?
free rider problem
The problem of someone deriving a benefit from the actions of others
Moral Majority
religious interests organization founded by Jerry Falwwell in the 1970's
Ulysses S. Grant
American president that coined the term lobbyist
issue network
Created when lobbyists employ former members of government
iron triangle
interaction of mutual interests involving interest groups, government officials, and members of Congress
What year included the supreme court decision of Citizens United v. Federal election Commission, which drastically altered the political landscape by allowing corporate and union election financing?
political party
an organization of ideologically similar people that nominates and elects its members to office
broad issue
Generally, political parties have ____ concerns.
access to gun ownership
Which of the following issues is the central focus of the National Rifle Association?
What year saw the supreme court ban southern states from formally excluding African Americans from primary voting
women, minorities, and students
which groups are more warmly received by political parties today than in the past
differences on ideological and policy issues
media attention on political parties tend to highlight their:
sometimes does not match
People's party identification ________ their voting preferences.
ethnic minorities and women
most likely to vote for Democrats
larger role for state governments
not a key Democratic position
environmental protection
not a key Republican position
Since _______, a majority of women have voted for the Democratic party.
country and local party
With respect to real political power, which of these groups is/are the most important component(s) of a party organization?
raising money
In recent years, what has been the most important role of the national party?
Once elected into office, the party in government exerts _____power.
Different parties control different branches of government
Divided government occurs when:
Term used by political scientists to describe a shift in party allegiances or electoral support
Thomas Jefferson
Which founding father, as founder of the Anti-Federalists, instigated the process of direct communication with voters?
John Adams
Whose defeat in the federal election of 1804 marked the end of the Federalist Party?
issue that dominated party politics in the 1850's
During the era of political machines, party leaders used _______ as a device to reward political supporters
Which party backed the presidential campaign of Theodore Roosevelt in 1912?
four times
How many times Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected president
For much of its existence, the United States has had a _______ system.
declined significantly
over the last several decades, political scientists have agreed that the power of political parties has:
lack of viable alternative
What factor do scholars identify as supportive of the current two-party system?
Green Party
Which of the following parties is an example of an issue advocacy party?
States Rights Party
Which of the following parties is an example of a splinter party?
Tea Party
Which grassroots movement has formed across America since 2009?
internet and cell phones
voters increasingly rely on these for political information and knowledge
watching t.v.
not considered social networks
primary election, candidate nomination, general election
Chronological order of the following
North Dakota
does not even require voters to register in order to participate in elections
locally selected delegates
decides which candidate receives the national party nomination in U.S. presidential primaries
today, party voters select delegates at state party meetings known as this
open primary election
anyone, even unregistered voters
closed primary election
only registered voters of members of that party
the states
control the timing of primary elections
since 2007, has included Super Tuesday, day which ,most presidential primary elections take place
In the U.S. most general elections are held in this month
50 percent plus 1
what percentage of votes must a candidate receive in a primary election to avoid a runoff election
state legislatures
In a referendum, voters in a state can vote for or against a measure proposed by whom?
citizens' and interest groups
typically sponsor initiatives, or initiative petitions
recall election
type of election that allows voters to cut an officeholder's term short
state's voting system came under enormous scrutiny because of paper perforations known as chads, in 2000 presidential election
party column ballot
ballot that generally leads to the coat tail effect, where down ballot candidates benefit from the popularity of those listed above them
at least 35
age limit for presidential office
at least 30
age limit for senatorial office
at least 25
age limit for election to the House of Representatives
age, residency, and citizenship
factors that determine eligibility and qualifications for elected office at the state level
age and gender
not considered informal qualifications for political office
paid campaign consultants
today, most political campaigns are conducted and managed by:
which of the following conducts focus groups to determine candidate strengths and weaknesses
$500 million
Using online donations and other internet-based fundraising strategies, how much money did Barack Obama raise in his 2008 presidential campaign?
Federal Election Campaign Act
Which of these pieces of legislation created the Federal Election Commission, the agency responsible for enforcing federal campaign finance laws?
soft money
contributions to political parties designated for so called party building activities
large corporation's collapse led to passage of McCain-Feingold Act
tax exempt groups tht raise money for political activites
how many electors there are in the electoral college
education level
most important in determining voter participation
year that 18 year-old's were granted the right to vote in the U.S.
over 90 percent
percentage of incumbents, or those already holding office, generally win re-election to the House of Representatives and the Senate
increasingly negative
over the last few years, many political campaigns have grown
for over one year
in the U.S., presidential campaigns generally last:
Passage of the National Voter Registration Act, or "Motor Voter Act", in 1993 has had a _________ effect on voter registration and turnout.
cell phone video camera
captured shooting and death of Neda-Agha Soltan, who was shot protesting the outcome of the Iranian elections in 2009
print media
was the first media technology to offer people the opportunity to express political views publicly
animated children's show that includes an episode that discusses the issue of censorship
Until the _____, most Americans could not read or write
one penny
Early in the nineteenth century, advances in the technology allowed the sale of newspapers for:
where the battleship Maine was when it exploded in February 1898
Upton Sinclair
Expose of the meat packing industry led to the establishment off the food and drug administration
broadcast television
media technology dominated between the 1940's and 1980
technology that is not considered new media
How many newspaper publishers and editions most American cities have today
how many newsroom supervisors were women in 2009
how many fireside chats or radio addresses to the country Franklin Roosevelt completed during his time as president
1970's and 1980's
When talk radio emerged from behind television
the year the Federal Communications Commission repealed the fairness doctrine, which had required stations to provide equal time to all sides regarding public issues and equal access to all candidates for public office
practice of aiming media content at specific segments of the public
quality of looking good on television
John F. Kennedy
first president to display telegenic qualities
digital divide
unequal access to computer technology
where average U.S. citizen lives
what has not changed because of internet
debuted in 2005, enhances civic engagement by allowing citizens to access and post video that includes political content
over four hours a day
amount of time Americans spend online today
blogs and websites
media that has succeeded in attracting young, liberal voters
Jesse Ventura
independent that used e-campaigning to win the governorship in Minnesota in 1999
form of new media considered by its users to be the most influential on politics
media organization that is an example of media convergence
blogs and websites
source of political information almost entirely unmonitored for accuracy
1.8 billion
amount of people globally that currently use the internet
free speech
most Americans see the internet as a vehicle and an example of the principle of:
mostly liberal
traditionally, media outlets and journalists have been labeled:
good news reports
not considered a powerful media audience attractor
best describes the evolutionary development of the U.S. media industry ownership over the last several decades
net neutrality
the idea that internet traffic should flow without oversight or interference