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Ecology Exam # 1 practice
Terms in this set (50)
What is Ecology?
The study of relationships between organisms and the environment
Nailing Nadkarni's study of tropical and temperate rain forests determined that...
epiphyte mats contain a significant source of nutrients
The___________ is a depositional horizon that contains clays, humus, and other materials which may form distinct banding patterns.
The highest level of ecological organization focuses on
The 'scientific method' includes:
Observations, experiments, and modeling; posing questions, and formulating testable hypothesis, and statistical analysis.
A biome is characterized primarily by...
Climate and predominate plant types
Heating of the earth's surface causes...
Warm air to rise and cool air to sink
Which soil horizon is most influenced by climate?
All of the following components influence soil structures
Boreal forest, which covers 11% of earths surface, is located in ______, and has ________ soil fertility.
50-60N latitude, low
Darwin is often considered the father of evolutionary thought. Which of the following is/are not part of Darwin's analysis?
All of the following statements concerning the hydrologic cycle are true except:
Transpiration is not involved.
A mangrove is the junction between ________ and _______, and located in ___________.
sea; land, tropical area
Eutrophic lakes are characterized by...
high nutrient level
What percent of the earth's water supply is freshwater in rivers, lakes, and actively exchange groundwater?
The turnover time for atmospheric water is....
days to weeks
Which of the following is the correct border of the major oceans basins from largest to the smallest?
Pacific, Atlantic, Indian
Natural selection is based on all of the following except:
Individuals try to change their phenotype and adapt to their environment
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation:
p^2 + 2pq + q^2= 1
In a population of birds, the average beak size is selected against and the large and small sized beaks are selected for. This is an example of ....
For thousands of years, humans have bred domesticated plants and animals to produce and maintain desirable traits, such as large fruit. Darwin used which term to describe this:
In Hardy-Weinberg population with two alleles, A and a, that are in equilibrium, the frequency of the allele a is 0.6, what is the frequency of the allele A?
In Hardy-Weinberg population with two alleles, A and a, that are in equilibrium, the frequency of the allele a is 0.3, what is the frequency of the genotype Aa?
The population of Chihuahua spruce have been fragmented due to changing climatic conditions. This has resulted in...
Getting up from your chair you realize that it is warm. What is the method of heat exchange?
It is a very hot day, and you jump into a lake to cool off. What is the method of heat exchange?
The leaves in many desert plants are covered with a dense coating of white plant hairs. These hairs reduce their ________ gain.
Arctic plants can stay warm by utilizing the following temperature regulating methods:
increasing rates of radiative heating
Dolphins are___________, and snakes are ___________.
Aquatic organisms whose ionic concentration of their body fluids is lower than that of their surroundings are:
A(n) _________________ marine fish gains water through osmosis and loses salt through diffusion.
Assume water potential is -0.6 at location A, and -0.2 at location B, what is the direction of water movement?
from B to A
The evaporative water loss by an organism is high when the...
actual water vapor density is very low relative to the saturation water vapor density.
In general, a plant located in an arid climate will posses all of the following in order to prevent water loss except:
decrease root biomass
Cactus is a ________ plant.
What organism use inorganic sources of both carbon and energy to synthesize organic compounds?
photosynthesizers, chemosynthesizmers, and autotrophs
Movement of water_______ its concentration gradient is called __________.
In________ plants CO2 is fixed in the mesophyll cells while sugar production occurs in the bundle sheath cells.
The main force in the development and refinement of prey defense is/are ?
The rate of energy intake by an organism can be limited by :
1. The availability of energy in the environment
2. foraging time
3. handling time
The group of organisms that contains the most trophic diversity:
Herbivores, carnivores, and detritivores are all...
In a______ functional response, initial feeding rates rise linearly at low food densities, rise more slowly at intermediate food densities, and then level off at high densities .
The photosynthetic response curve is most similar to
Type 2 functional repose curve
What are the difference and relationships between ecology and evolution?
Ecology = interactions between the organisms and the environment .
Evolution= change-> new environment-> new selective pressure
Body heat Hs= Hm +Hcd + Hcv +Hr -He. Please explain
a. each term
b. How lizards can stay warm based on this equation.
Hs= heat of organism
Hm= heat of metabolism
Hcd= heat of conduction
Hcv= heat of convection
Hr= heat of radiation
He= heat of evaporation
Lizards stay warm by staying out in the sun and it gains heat of conductions which allows them to stay warm. A change in the pigment of their skin allows heat to remain radiating in their bodies.
Describe how natural selection works.
Natural selection is the mechanism for which evolution works. Aka survival of the fittest
1. more offsprings are produce than can be handle
2. the individuals with better phenotypes are more likely to survive and reproduce.
3. limited resources
In the Sonoran Desert, the only insects known to evaporatively cool are cicadas. Explain how cicadas can employ evaporative cooling while hundreds of other insect species in the same environment cannot.
They have three large pores located on their dorsal surface that are required for evaporative cooling. Since they have high rates of water acquisition they can handle a high rate of evaporation to balance the loss of water.
....the sweat and get water from host plants.
What is optimal forage theory?
Organisms invest energy in the most needed area.
Type 1: for clams, the low food density causes a slow increase of rate of feeding and a high food density it levels off. it is beneficial for them because this type does not required much foraging.
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