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• Describes physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to events that are threatening or challenging.


stress responses

stress responses

physical problems, emotional problems, cognitive problems

physical problems

fatigue,sleeping problems, illness/nausea

emotional problems

anxiety, depression, fear, irritability

cognitive problems

lack of concentration, poor memory, poor decisions

types of stressors

distress and eustress


stress caused by unpleasant happenings.

examples of distress

divorce and death


stress caused by good things

examples of eustress

marriage and pregnancy

Lazarus's cognitive appraisal theory of stress

The way we think about a stressor can affect how stressful it becomes. Primary Appraisal- estimating stressor and identifying it as a threat, challenged, or a loss. Secondary appraisal- do i have the resources to deal with this?

3 types of stressors

catastrophes, major life changes, hassles


unpredictable event on a large scale

major life changes

marriage, new job, college


daily annoyance

Holmes and Rahe's Social Readjustment rating scale

What is this used for? What are the most stressful events on the list?

college undergrad scale

What is this used for? What are the most stressful events on the list?

sources of stress

pressure, uncontrollability, frustration, conflict


demands and expectations are high from a outside source, "time" is a common source, can negatively impact ability to be creative.


learned helplessness effect and executive monkey syndrome

learned helplessness effect

If a group of animals gets inescapable shocks, they will fail to learn to escape from shock later on, even though escape is possible. LH animals are more susceptible to illnesses May be a good model of post-traumatic stress disorder

executive monkey effect

Monkeys put in charge of too many things become overwhelmed.


occurs when people are blocked from achieving their goals. major/minor frustrations affected by the seriousness.

responses to frustration

persistence, aggression, displacement, escape/withdrawal


approach-approach avoidance conflict, avoidance-avoidance conflict, approach-avoidance conflict

stress reaction

general adaptation syndrome

general adaptation syndrome

what happens to the body when its under stress. Alarm, resistance, exhaustion

general adaptation syndrome: alarm

ANS activation, burst of energy, fever, nausea, headache

general adaptation syndrome: resistance

body settles into ANS activation

general adaptation syndrome: exhaustion

sympathetic reaction used up, resources are gone, fatigue, illness

type A personality

workaholics, very ambitious, competitive, easily annoyed, 3 times more likely to have unhealthy heart conditions than type B personalities

type B personality

easy going and slow to anger

type C personality

internalize feelings and strongly associated with cancer

hardy personalities

tend to thrive on stress : have a deep sense of commitment to goals, feel in control of their lives, see things as a challenge


unique way in which an individual thinks, acts, and feels throughout life. NOT character and NOT temperament

perspectives on personality

psychodynamic, behaviorist, humanistic, and trait

psychodynamic perspectives on personality

freud and the victorian society which was a time of sexual repression

three subdivisions of the mind

preconscious, conscious, unconscious mind

3 sudivisons of the mind: preconscious mind

memories, info, that is accessible if you want to retrieve it

3 subdivisions of the mind: conscious mind

ones current awareness

3 subdivisions of the mind: unconscious mind

part of the mind that remains hidden at all times, surfaces only in dreams and manifests in unexplained behaviors; most important part of personality

3 parts of personality

Id, ego, superego


All in unconscious mind, Pleasure principle, Exists from birth, Demanding, illogical, irrational, impulsive

pleasure principle

• Desire for the immediate gratification with no regards for the consequences.


In conscious mind, Rational, logical, Sometimes referred to as the "self", Reality principle


Development of morality - your "conscience", Develops during preschool ages, Rule orientated

Conflict between Id and Superego

creates inner conflict and anxiety, Psychological defense mechanisms

Psychological defense mechanisms

to resolve conflict we create unconsciously distortions of reality.

5 stages of psychosexual development

oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latency stage, genital stage

5 stages of psychosexual development: oral stage

zone is the mouth, from birth to 1-1.5 yrs., stage is dominated by the Id, effects of early or late weaning

5 stages of psychosexual development: anal stage

from 1.5-3 yrs., effects of toilet training: anal expulsive personalities, anal retentive personalities

5 stages of psychosexual development: phallic stage

3-6 yrs., erogenous zone is genitalia, Castration anxiety and penis envy, Oedipus complex and Identification, development of the super ego

5 stages of psychosexual development: latency stage

from 6 until puberty, sexual feelings for the opposite sex are represented, boys have "cootites" and girls are "yucky"

5 stages of psychosexual development: genital stage

puberty onwards and sexually attracted to peers

frued's psychosexual fixation

unresolved conflicts during a stage can cause one to get "stuck"


Broke away from focus on sexual behavior and Emphasized social/environmental influences on personality

Neo-Freudians: Carl Jung

Collective unconscious-memories shared by all members of the human species--archetypes

Neo-Freudians: Alfred Alder

Feelings of superiority and inferiority and Birth order effects

Neo-Freudians: Karen Horney

Basic anxiety and Effects of secure and insecure upbringing

Neo-Freudians: Erik Erikson

Eight stages of psychosocial development


emphasized the role of learning on personality development

Social Cognitive View

learning, expectations, and modeling all play a role in developing personality

Bandura's Theory of personality development

Reciprocal determinism

Bandura's Theory of personality development: Reciprocal determinism

Environment, Behavior, and Cognitive factors all work together to determine personality. Self-efficacy


expectations of whether one's own behavior will accomplish a goal in that circumstance.


role of individual's life choices and self-concept

Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow

Focuses on aspects of personality that make people uniquely human--i.e., feelings and choices.

Self-actualization tendency

need to fulfill one's own potential.

Formation of self-concept

Real self vs. Ideal self


concerned with specific traits of the individual

Trait theories

describe personalities and try to predict behavior based on that personality

Allport's trait theory

believed traits were wired in the nervous system.

Cattell's 16 personality factors

Surface traits vs Source traits and Through statistical methods identified 16 source traits.

Cattell's 16 personality factors: The big five



Openness, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism

What is abnormal?: psychologists definition

Any pattern of behavior that causes people significant distress, causes them to harm themselves or others, or interferes with their ability to function in daily life.

Four ways to define abnormal behavior

Statistical definition - behavior that is rare, Deviance from social norms, Personal Distress, Inability to function normally - maladaptive behavior

models of abnormality

biological an psychological methods

model of abnormality : biological method

Medical Model - psychological disorders have a biological cause

model of abnormality: psychological method

Psychoanalysis, Behaviorism, Cognitive perspective, Combination approaches


behavioral abnormality is the result of repressing undesirable thoughts, memories, and concerns.


abnormal behaviors are learned

cognitive perspective

abnormal behavior results from illogical thinking patterns

Diagnosing Psychological Disorders

known as the DSM-IV-TR Contains each known disorder, a description, symptoms, checklist of criteria, and other relevant facts. Divided into five Axes


Axis I - Clinical disorders, Axis II - Personality disorders and Mental Retardation, Axis III - General Medical conditions, Axis IV - Psychosocial and environmental problems, Axis V - Global Assessment of Functioning

Rosenhan study

Pseudo-patients could not be distinguished from regular patients. Behaviors were viewed as abnormal because of contextual bias

Prevalence of Psychological disorders

About 22% of adults suffer from mental disorder per year. About 44 million people in the US. Most prevalent of Psychological disorders is depression

Psychological Disorders

Anxiety disorders, Mood disorders (Affective disorders), Schizophrenia

Anxiety disorders

Fear vs. free-floating anxiety, Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Panic disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

Anxiety disorders: phobias

Social phobia, Specific phobia,Agoraphobia

social phobia

fear of interacting with others or being in a social situation, Afraid of negative evaluation by others, Very self-conscious, Ex. Stage fright, fear of public speaking

specific phobia

fear of something in particular, Ex. Fear of dogs, fear of needles, enclosed places.


Fear of being in a place where escape is difficult if something should go wrong

Anxiety disorders: OCD

Obsessions - intruding thoughts, Compulsions - ritualistic behaviors that reduce anxiety

anxiety disorders: panic disorder

Sudden onset of impending sense of doom

anxiety disorders: generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)

Excessive worrying around the clock, Interferes with normal functioning

causes of anxiety disorders

Psychoanalytic explanation, Behaviorist explanation, Cognitive explanation

causes of anxiety disorders: psychoanalytic explanation

repressed feelings and thoughts

causes of anxiety disorders: behaviorist explanation

learned over time

causes of anxiety behaviors: cognitive explanation

illogical, irrational thought (Magnification, All-or-nothing thinking, Overgeneralization, Minimization)

causes of anxiety disorders: cognitive explanation-magnification

making mountains out of molehills

causes of anxiety disorders: cognitive explanation- all-or-nothing thinking

must be perfect or it's totally ruined

causes of anxiety disorders: cognitive explanation-Overgeneralization

single negative event interpreted as a pattern

causes of anxiety disorders: cognitive explanation-minimization

only look at the bad, minimizing the positive.

Mood disorders (affective disorders)

mild and major mood disorders and schizophrenia

mood disorders: mild mood

Dysthymia and Cyclothymia

mood disorders: mild mood-Dysthymia

a moderate depression that lasts for two years or more and is typically associated with some outside stressor

mood disorders: mild mood- Cyclothymia

cycle between sadness and happiness that lasts more than two years.

mood disorders: major mood

major depression and bipolar disorder

mood disorders:major mood- major depression

Deeply depressed mood that comes on fairly suddenly and is out of proportion with the circumstances surrounding it.

mood disorders: major mood- bipolar disorders

Manic episode (extreme happiness) followed by depression episode

mood disorders: schizophrenia

psychotic disorder, positive symptoms, negative symptoms

types of schizophrenia

disorganized, catatonic, paranoid, undifferentiated, residual

types of schizophrenia: disorganized

confused speech patterns, vivid and frequent hallucinations, inappropriate affect, socially impaired, poor hygiene.

types of schizophrenia: catatonic

does not respond to the outside world. Will not move for hours on end, often staying in odd postures. Totally on or off

types of schizophrenia: paranoid

suffers from hallucinations and delusions, often auditory. Often believe they are being persecuted or pursued

types of schizophrenia: undifferentiated

may shift from one type of schizophrenia to another

types of schizophrenia: residual

after a major episode of schizophrenia that is over. Person may return to "somewhat" normal, but retain odd, quirky symptoms

schizophrenia: positive symptoms

hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking, irrational thought, word salad

schizophrenia: negative symptoms

flat affect, catatonia, social withdrawal, lack of speech

schizophrenia: psychotic disorder

Long-lasting psychotic disorder (involving a break with reality) characterized by disturbances in thinking, emotions, behavior, and perception

causes of schizophrenia

Evidence for genetics and Dopamine hypothesis

causes of schizophrenia: evidence for genetics

Twin studies - monozygotic twins - 49%; dizygotic twins - 7%. Adoption studies - much higher prevalence for Schizophrenia in biological family than in adopted family.

causes of schizophrenia: dopamine hypothesis

Theory that it is excessive dopamine that causes Schizophrenia DA antagonists do relieve positive symptoms, however evidence for this theory is mixed.

types of psychological therapies

psychotherapy, action therapies, cognitive therapy


talking about problems to someone who listens

psychotherapy: insight therapy

aimed at understanding motives and actions

psychoanalysis: freud

believed it was a way to "cleanse" the unconscious mind. dream analysis, free association, resistance, transference.

dream analysis

believed that unconscious info emerged in dreams

free association

loosely associated stream of ideas, free of negative evaluation.


patients unwilling to talk about certain things- coming close to repressed material.


patient transfers feelings from childhood to therapist.

psychological therapy: humanistic therapy

person-centered therapy carl rogers and 4 basic elements

four basic elements of humanistic therapies

reflection, unconditional positive regard, empathy, authenticity

4 basic elements of humanistic therapy: reflection

mirroring a client's statements without interfering with the flow of ideas.

4 basic elements od humanistic therapy: unconditional positive regard

completely accepting atmosphere created by the therapist

4 basic elements of humanistic therapy: empathy

trying to feel what the client is feeling

4 basic elements of humanistic therapy: authenticity

genuine, open, and honest responding to the client.

action therapies: behavior therapy

Behavior modification or applied behavior analysis, Use of learning techniques to change behavior

behavior therapy- systematic desensitization (flooding)

a form of counter conditioning

behavior therapy- aversion therapy

pairing behavior with something negative

behavior therapy: modeling

learning through the observation and imitation of others

behavior therapy: reinforcement

strengthening a response by following with something pleasurable or by removing something unpleasent

behavior therapy: extinction

removing attention/pleasant reward when bad behavior is occurring

cognitive therapy

Focused on changing distorted thinking patterns

beck's cognitive therapy

testing beliefs to see how accurate they really are

cognitive-behavioral therapy

mixes both cognitive therapy with behaviorism. relieve symptoms, help clients develop strategies to cope with future problems, help clients change the way they think- more positive

rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT)

Albert Ellis- challenge beliefs with more helpful statements

See more

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