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HESC321 Exam #1
Terms in this set (72)
how do people form their view of drug use?
SOCIETY, peers, family, personal experiences (positive or negative), cultural influences, gender differences, ethnicity/race
what is an illicit drug?
illegal drugs; marijuana, cocaine
what is a licit drug?
legal drugs; coffee, alcohol, tobacco
what are the effects of psychoactive drugs on the body?
alter mood, consciousness, behavior
when used in large doses, user is at risk for addiction & can experience withdrawal
what is a gateway drug?
drugs that when used excessively, tend to lead to the use of other addictive drugs like cocaine or heroin
what is an example of a gateway drug?
alcohol, tobacco & marijuana
what are the effects on the body of long term use of alcohol?
high blood pressure, irregular heartbeat & liver deterioration`
what is the purpose of anabolic steroid use?
to increase muscle size and strength
what is creatine?
an organic acid that helps to supply energy to primarily the muscles in the body
what are some examples of side-effects of anabolic steroids?
heart disease, liver cancer, high blood pressure, depression, violence, mood swings
what are some characteristics of highest concentration of drug users in the U.S.?
18-20 yes old, male, unemployed, did not finish high school, metropolitan county
what is the percentage use of nicotine in the U.S.?
how do drug users vary from one another?
equal-opportunity affliction --> drug use affects everyone in society whether or not they actually do drugs
what is a "floater"?
those that go back and forth between the need for pleasure seeking and the desire to relieve moderate to serious psychological problems
what is an "experimenter"?
those who use drugs because of peer pressure and curiosity; confined to recreational settings
how is drug "dependency" defined?
synonym of addiction --> body's physical or psychological need for the drug
what drugs are produced in "clandestine labs"?
meth, amphetamines, ecstasy, LSD, PCP
be aware of relationship between drug use and crime
the majority of prisoners claimed they committed crimes while under the influence of drugs
which ethnic group has the highest rate of illicit drug use?
2+ races and then american Indian/Alaska natives
which ethnic group has the lowest rate of illicit drug use?
why is drug use more serious now compared to the past?
-drugs are more potent
-drugs are popular
-drugs are experimented with youth at younger ages
-drugs are glorified through media
-there is greater availability of drugs and wider access to drug info
-dependent on other's expertise & technology
percentage use of U.S. population taking drugs daily?
what is drug "tolerance"?
an individual's need for a drug increases the amounts or else they will experience a diminished effect with teh same amount
which model of addiction is most prevalent in the U.S. currently?
what is the "moral" model?
the belief that people abuse alcohol because they choose to do so
what is the "disease" model?
the belief that people abuse alcohol because of some biologically caused condition
explain the phases of addiction.
explain the genetic and biophysiological theories of addiction.
addiction forms because of genetics, brain dysfunction and biochemical patterns
what is a neurotransmitter?
a chemical messenger that is released by neurons for communication with other cells
what is the function of dopamine in the brain?
tries to mediate the enhanced pleasure/reward centers in the brain that are cause by most drugs of abuse
explain the Social Learning Theory.
an individual learns patterns of behavior by observing the attitudes of others, society and their peers
what are the characteristics of those at risk for drug addiction based on Learning Processes.
-addiction to pleasure theory (biologically normal to continue a pleasure stimulus once begun)
-receiving affection or approval in social setting
-amount of drug being taken
what is a primary social relationship?
groups that share a high amount of intimacy and spontaneity & who are emotionally bonded
explain structural influence theories.
these theories focus on the assumption that the structure of society has a huge impact on an individual's drug use
what is "amotivational syndrome"?
controversial syndrome that claims that the use of marijuana causes a lack of motivation and decrease in productivity
what is a "retrospective interpretation"?
redefining a person in light of a major status position
explain the subculture theory.
explains the use of drugs in context of peer influences (pressure, behaviors, activities)
explain the labeling theory.
other people's perspectives and opinions have a direct influence on one's self-image and view of themselves in terms of their drug use
what was the purpose of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906?
to force manufacturers to indicate the amounts of alcohol, cocaine and heroin extract on the label of each product - so people could see what "addictive" substances were included in various products
what was the purpose of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act?
allowed manufacturers to determine whether a drug should be labeled as prescription or nonprescription
was thalidomide approved as a drug for pregnant women in the U.S.?
yes to treat morning sickness, BUT it caused severe deveelopmental damage to the fetus
what are the phases of regulation and drug development in the U.S.?
-ensure the rights & safety of human subjects during clinical testing
-evaluate the safety & efficacy of new treatments
-compare potential benefits & risks to determine whether a new drug should be approved and marketed
explain the orphan drug law.
tax advantages were given to companies who developed drugs to treat rare diseases in small groups of people
what is the "fast track" policy of the FDA?
testing of certain drugs without the research component so they could be quickly released to the public
what is the "switching" policy of the FDA?
allowing the change of prescription drugs to OTC status
what do each of the five schedule drugs say about abuse and medical purposes? explain each.
I: high abuse potential & not used for medical purposes
II: high abuse potential & accepted for medical purposes
III: low abuse potential & accepted for medical purposes
IV: low abuse potential & accepted for medical purposes
V: low abuse potential & accepted for medical purposes
what is the "inoculation strategy"?
the method of abuse prevention that protects drug users by teaching them about responsibility and explaining the effects of drugs on bodily and mental functioning
what does "interdiction" mean?
the policy of cutting off or destroying supplies of illicit drugs
what is "demand reduction"?
attempt to decrease drug tendencies in youth by emphasizing a reformulation of personal values and behaviors
*minimize the actual demand for drugs through education
which category of OTC drugs are considered safe and effective?
what is homeostasis?
the maintenance of internal stability that is necessary to optimize bodily functions and assist in survival
what is the function of neurons in the nervous system?
they make up the nervous system and release neurotransmitters to send signals throughout the body
what are "endorphins"?
the body's own opiates that have narcotic-like effects
what are "drug agonists"?
those that activate receptors
what is the function of "monoamine oxidase"?
functions as a metabolizing enzyme for serotonin
what illicit drug has "serotonin-like" chemical effects?
what is the function of the limbic system?
regulation of emotions, memory and reward centers in the brain
what are the effects of a sympathomimetic drug?
agents that mimic the effects of norepinephrine and epinephrine
what is the function of the frontal cortex?
storing memories, controlling behaviors, processing information and problem-solving/making decisions
what are the side-effects of anabolic steroid use?
-tears in muscles and ligaments
-effects in limbic system
-increased aggression, excitation & superiority
is there a therapeutic use for androgens?
yes, for replacement in males with abnormally functioning testes
what is the purpose of dopamine in the nervous system?
it is an important neurotransmitter that is responsible for controlling movement, fine muscle activity and various endocrine functions
what is the "margin of safety"?
the range in dose between the amount of drug necessary to cause a therapeutic effect or a toxic effect
what is "synergism"?
when the effect of a drug is enhanced by the presence of another drug
what is the "therapeutic index"?
the amount of a therapeutic agent that causes the therapeutic effect to the amount that causes toxicity
what is an "additive" drug interaction?
the summation of the effects when drugs are taken concurrently
what is an "antagonistic" drug interaction?
occurs when one drug cancels or blocks the effect of another drug
what is the difference between "fat" and "water soluble" drugs in relation to the brain?
fat --> oily
water soluble --> dissolved in water
what is the "threshold" dose?
minimum drug effect regardless of the dose
how does the "blood-brain barrier" work?
selective filtering system between cerebral blood vessels & brain, allows fat soluble drugs into brain
what is the "placebo effect" related to drugs?
effects that are caused by the suggestion of various psychological facts independent of the medical activity of the drug
how does drug formulation affect drug absorption?
how a drug is formulated (solution, powder, capsule, or pill) influences the rate of passage into the bloodstream
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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