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Anton Harfman Midterm
Terms in this set (124)
The amount of water vapor present in a unit volume of air, usually expressed in kilograms per cubic meter
The exact measurement of lumber after it has been cut, dried and milled (less than or equal to 1" it loses ¼", larger than 1" it loses ½")
Altitude of sun
the angle of the sun's rays compared with the horizon, at sunrise and sunset the altitude is zero
used to attached objects to concrete
inexpensive and commonly used roof shingles, very easy to install
a window with a top hinge which opens outward
Azimuth of Sun
the direction of the sun as shown on a compass
wooden framing structure made of studs which run from the sill plate to the top plate with floor structures nailed to them
a wooden joist running perpendicular to the primary direction of the joists in a floor and closing off the floor platform at the outside face of the building
rigid structural members designed to carry and transfer transverse loads across space to supporting elements
as air moves around an object, the particles and volume of air that normally would flow in parallel lines must squeeze itself between the object and the mass of air known as the boundary layer. the only way the air being diverted can get around the object and resume its path is to speed up as it moves past. this creates neg. pressure on three sides of the object and higher winds on either sides. neg press. can be integrated into a building to increase efficiency of ventilation to improve comfort
Wedge-shaped boards used as horizontal siding in a lapped pattern
Design that effectively controls the light, heat and radiant energy from the sun to mitigateits damaging effects or capitalizing on its energy in a building to heat, cool or light usingboth passive and active strategies to reduce the use of other non-renewable energy
Bird's Mouth Cut
An angled notch cut into a rafter to allow the rafter to seat securely on the top of a wall
Board and Batten Siding
board: wood cladding made up of boards, as differentiated from shingles or manufactured wood panels
batten: a strip of wood or metal used to cover the crack between the two adjoining boards or panels
Bottom or Sole Plate
The horizontal piece of dimension lumber at the bottom of the studs in a wall in a light frame building
a sill for a building frame, composed of a plate resting on the basement wall and a joist or header at the outer edge of the plate, as well as a soleplate for the studs resting either directly on the joists or on the rough flooring
Stretcher - The typical course style, masonry units are laid with their face parallel to the wall and the long dimension outwards.
Header - a course with the face of the unit parallel to the wall, and the small dimension outwards
Rowlock - A course with the long dimension parallel to the wall and the small face looking outward.
Soldier -The longest dimension is vertical, with the large face perpendicular to the wall.
Part of the foundation wall where brick (veneer) will rest
British Thermal Unit, Amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 lb. of water by 1 degree F.
Great ventilators; because the sash swings out, air that would otherwise pass the opening is directed inward; cranks open.
beam spanning between walls or other supports which carries the ceiling below it but not the floor above
Clay Roof Tiles
Roof tiles made of burned clay in various shapes and colors
A row of windows in the upper part of a wall that rises above an adjoining roof. Its purpose is to provide direct lighting, as in a basilica or church
Lechner defines climate zones (or regions) based on the temperature and humidity extremes
and swings as well as the amount of sun and intensity of winds.
Humans are most comfortable in a particular area of the Psychrometric Chart. While we can tolerate extremes for periods of time, the comfort zone represents an range of temperature and humidity that requires no intervention. The further outside the comfort zone the greater the need for intervention.(ie heating if you are far to the left of the comfort zone, cooling if you are far to the right.) The comfort zone for summer is slightly different than the winter.
buildings should maximize solar gain, reduce heat loss, provide wind protection
Cooling Degree Days
A measure of the need for air conditioning when the average daily temp is above 65 degrees F (18 degrees C); computed by subtracting 65 degrees F from the average daily temp in degrees F.
Used as trim for the external corners of a house or other frame structure against which the ends of the siding are finished
The cornice is the uppermost section of moldings along the top of a wall or just below a roof.
In Classical architecture, the cornice is the upper portion of the entablature, located above the architrave and the frieze.
An exterior or interior opening permitting access to underneath a building, as required by building codes.
a stud that does not extend all the way from the bottom plate to the top plate because there is an opening in the wall like for a window
the combined weight of all permanent and stationary construction, fabrications, and equipment in a building including the building itself
The temperature at which air is saturated and condensation forms
A piece of lumber measuring from 2 to 4 inches in nominal thickness
Direct Normal Radiance
amount of solar radiation received per unit area by a surface that is always held perpendicular (or normal) to the rays that come in a straight line from the direction of the sun at its current position in the sky. typically, you can maximize the amount of irradiance annually received by a surface by keeping it normal to incoming radiation.
Direct Passive Solar Gain
heating system in which sunlight penetrates and warms the house interior directly.
Double Hung Window
A window with sashes that slide vertically and allow opening from the top and bottom
Double Top Plate
two members at the top of a wall assembly, allows the floor joists or rafters to be placed anywhere on the top plate, transfers gravity loads from the floor and roof to the studs
Dry Bulb Tempurature
the temperature of air measured by a thermometer freely exposed to the air but shielded from radiation and moisture
Exterior insulation and finish systems. Often called synthetic stucco b/c appearance. Consist of a layer of a reinforced finish over a layer of insulation. Which is fastened to a layer of sheathing applied to furring or framing.
Energy Use by Sector
buildings consume the greatest proportion of energy by sector
- 25% industry (factories)
- 27% transportation
- 48% buildings (8% materials and construction, 40% operations and maintenance)
a frieze or band running horizontally and situated vertically under the roof edge or which forms the outer surface of a cornice and is visible to an outside observer
thin continuous pieces of sheet metal or other impervious material installed to prevent the passage of water into a structure from an angle or joint
Uses a reinforced concrete slab thats poured over a compacted granular base. used with basement walls or a perimeter grade beam and doesn't carry any structural load
Base of foundation system, normally concrete, used to displace the building loads over the soil, made of poured concrete, placed below freezing level, types: spot, continuous, grade beam.
groove of some king formed on the top of the footing, down the center lengthwise
The depth in the earth to which the soil can be expected to freeze
Gable End Ladder Overhang
Gable End Truss
Two evenly sloping side planes joined along a ridge
Gable roof in which each of the two sloping sides is divided horizontally roughly halfway down, the lower half having a steeper pitch.
partially or completely covered with vegetation and a growing medium, planted over a waterproofing membrane
A roof covered with soil and plant materials; eco-roof; vegetated roof
a flat steel plate used to connect the members of a truss; a stiffener plate
(lintel) horizontal support across the top of a door or window to carry load over opening
Heating Degree Days
a measure of space heating needs on days when the average air temp falls below 65 degree F (18 degrees C); computed by subtraction the days average temp from 65 degrees F.
A roof consisting of four sloping planes that intersect to form a pyramidal or elongated pyramid shape
a window with hinges at the bottom that opens inward
buildings should reduce solar gain, promote cooling using water and plants, provide shading
buildings should reduce solar gain, utilize wind for cooling, and provide shade
An obstruction along the eave of a roof, caused by the refreezing of water emanating from melting snow on the roof surface above.
Amount of light falling on surface
the rate of delivery of solar radiation per unit of horizontal surface
this chair is grey while another is yellow
Jack or Lap Stud
a shortened stud that carriers a header above a wall opening; also called a trimmer stud
the parallel beams that hold up the planks of a floor
the parallel beams that hold up the planks of a floor
Lambert's Cosine Law
the amount of energy that strikes a surface declines that surface is at more of an angle to the sun (ie not perpendicular) the more the angle is at an angle and becomes away from 0, the less energy is hitting the surface.
A horizontal device usually positioned above eye level that reflects daylight onto the ceiling and beyond.
Line of Excavation
The line defining the limits of an aspect of construction
the load superimposed by the usual and occupancy of the building
must be established on the basis of the worst loading conditions one may expect during entire life (people, furniture, supplies, snow loads)
horizontal pieces that span between the fly rafter and common rafter at the edge of the roof for support
It's a standardization, based on use, appearance, strength.
unit of illuminance and luminous emittance, measuring luminous flux per unit area
Hipped roof with 2 pitches
Masonry Bond Pattern
the pattern that a masonry wall is laid in: running, flemmish, common, english
Moment of Inertia
a measure of a body's rotational axis
The greater the value of I=the more difficult to change the state of the body's rotation
An approximate dimension assigned to a piece of material as a convenience in referring to the piece
made of long shreds of wood compressed and glued in 3-5 layers
can be produced from small trees and even branches = MORE ECONOMICAL THAN PLYWOOD
is now material most commonly used for sheathing and subflooring of light frame wood buildings
Passive Solar Design
In passive solar design, windows, walls, and floors are made to collect, store and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject solar heat in the summer
Passive Solar Heating
A type of heating method that uses the materials in the structure to absorb, store, and release solar energy.
a window that opens by pivoting either horizontally or vertically
A method of framing wood stud walls in which the studs are one story in height and the floor joists bear on the top plates of the wall below.
Permanent Supplementary Artificial Lighting Interiors
A chart showing the interactions of wet bulb, dry bulb, and dew point temperatures, relative and absolute humidities, enthalpy, and sensible heat ratio.
beam forming internal framework of roof
the amount of water vapor in the air, expressed as a percentage of the total amount of water the air could hold at the same temperature if it were saturated
Day time: close roof insulation, solar energy reflected, pond absorbs heat from builiding.
Nightime: open roof insulation, heat from pond rejected.
Saddle or Cricket
Sawtooth Roof Monitor
brings light deep into the building
a roof having a single slope
The horizontal bottom portion of a window or door.
(base plate) base of wood framing, bolted or strapped to the foundation of the building, 2x4 requirement, pressure treated or water-resistant, lowest supporting timber of a structure.
a compressible material placed between a foundation and a sill to reduce air
infiltration between the outdoors and indoors
Site Contour Line
lines showing the massing of the building and topography (have to show existing contour lines, new contour lines, and the finish grade of drives, walks lawns or other imporved surfaces after comletion of constructing or grading operations)
Located on the roof or ceiling; used to admit light into areas of structure that have little or no natural light.
Slab on Grade
A concrete surface lying upon, and supported directly by, the ground beneath
Slate Roof Tiles
high qulaity (last a long time), expensive, hard to install (tiles are fragile), looks good
measure relative humidity; readings in %
The exposed undersurface of any overhead component of a building but typically a window or door.
Solar Thermal Chimney
if there is minimal wind or outside air movement, it is possible to induce movement using diff. temps. since warm air is less dense it tend to rise pulling cooler air from below it. these "thermals" created by warmed air rising can be created using passive solar collection in a building.
Standing Seam Metal Roofing
a sheet metal roofing seam that projects at right angles to the plane of the roof
high quality (last a long time), expensive, hard to install (fragile), look good
wood member for the walls
vertical members for wall framing
refers to the apparent significant seasonal-and-hourly positional changes of the sun (and length of daylight) as the Earth rotates, and orbits around the sun. The relative position of the sun is a major factor in the heat gain of buildings and in the performance of solar energy systems
North of 23.5 degrees north and south of 23.5 degrees south
construction materials that absorb store and release heat
the top part of the wall framing that connects the stud to the ceiling framing
A thermal storage wall consisting of an external glass skin and an inner wall with a layer of air between, which warms the room behind it by convection.
A structural frame composed of relatively short elements, typically configured into triangles used to form a bridge or span a roof.
all chairs have four legs
minimizes settlement, soil deep in the ground that hasnt been touched.
a measurement of power, or how fast work is done
A small opening whose purpose is to permit drainage of water that accumulates inside a building component or assembly.
Wet Bulb Tempurature
the lowest temperature that can be reached by evaporation water into the air
A diagram that shows the percent of time that the wind blows from different directions at a given location over a given time.
basic wooden shingle made from a split log (used for roof and siding applications)
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