33 terms

AP Psychology Chapter 9 Thinking & Language

all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
a mental image or best example of a category
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 398)
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
Confirmation bias
a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving
Mental set
A tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, especially a way that has been successful in the past but may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem
Belief perseverance
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
knowing or sensing something without the use of reason; an insight
Functional fixedness
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving
Representativeness heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information
Availability heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common
the tendency to be more confident than correct--to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments
Belief bias
the tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid
our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)
in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
The study of meaning in language.
studies of the rules for forming admissible sentences
Babbling stage
beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
One-word stage
the stage in speech development, from about 1 to 2, during which a childspeaks mostly in single words.
Two-word stage
Beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements.
Telegraphic speech
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram--'go car'--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting 'auxiliary' words
impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to wernicke's area (impairing understanding)
Broca's area
controls language expression-an aread of the frontal, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
Wernicke's area
controls language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression;usually in the left temporal lobe
Linguistic relativity
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
Artificial Intelligence
the science of designing and programming computer systems to do intelligent things and to simulate human thought processes suchs as reasoning and understanding language
Computer Neural Networks
Computer circuits that mimic the brain's interconnected neural cells, performing tasks such as learning to recognize visual patterns and smells