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Historical Ideologies of Psychology (Ex.1)
Terms in this set (34)
scientific study of mind and behavior
private inner experience resulting from processes that occur in the brain
observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals
Affect, Behavior, and Cognition
-Affect: emotional experience
-Behavior: observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals
-Mind: private inner experience; includes consciousness, perception, memory and cognition
idea that the mind and brain are separate entities that interact; electrical and chemical activity in the body cases emotions, thoughts, etc.
known for the concept of dualism; suggested that there are two realms to existence, the physical and the mental realm; tried to understand the separation and relationship between the body and mind
systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the context of their thoughts; can be very limited in terms of reading conclusions; not good for scientific method application
integrated pieces from philosophy and natural sciences to create the academic discipline of psychology; established the first psych lab at the University of Leipzig; tried to address the relationship between elements of consciousness; introduced structuralism and introspection; idea that mental processes could be measured
approach to discovering the basic elements, or structures, of mental processes; focus on the identification of the structures of the human mind; breaking down the brain to understand it
Edward B. Titchener
continued with structuralism and brought it to Cornell University; tried to identify the elements of consciousness; first to bring structuralism to the United States; major figure and founder of the establishment of experimental psychology
principle of an evolutionary process in which organisms that are best adapted to their environment will survive and produce offspring; features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are more likely than other features to be passed on to subsequent generations
geologist and naturalist that introduced the principle of natural selection; his contributions became the foundation of modern evolutionary studies
approach to mental processes, emphasizing the functions and purposes of the mind and behavior in the individual's adaptation to the environment; studies how mental abilities allow people to adapt to their environments
introduced functionalism; argued that functions of mind provide better understanding and that focusing on elements alone does not provide answers; saw the mind as flexible and fluid, characterized by constant change in response to a continuous flow of information from the world (stream of consciousness)
contemporary approaches of psychology
perspectives that involve certain assumptions about human behavior; the way they function, which aspects of them are worthy of study and what research methods are appropriate for undertaking each study; represent the intellectual backdrop of psychological science
approach that focuses on the body, especially the brain and nervous system
scientific study of structure, function, development, genetics, and the biochemistry of the nervous system; emphasizes that the brain and the nervous system are central to understanding behavior, thought, and emotion
approach that emphasizes the scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants
approach that emphasizes unconscious thought which is the conflict between biological drives and society's demands, and early childhood family experiences
approach that emphasizes a person's positive qualities, the capacity for positive growth, and the freedom to choose any destiny
approach that emphasizes the mental processes involved in knowing; how we direct our attention, perceive, remember, think, and solve problems
approach centered on evolutionary ideas such as adaptation, reproduction, and natural selection as the basis for explaining specific human behaviors
approach that examines the ways in which social and cultural environments influence behavior
If you are interested in the functionalist approach to psychology, you would be most interested in...
how human consciousness works to help us exist and survive
Psychologists use scientific methods to study...
behavior and mental processes
Behavior is ____________; mental processes are ____________.
According to the definition of psychology, which of the following is NOT a behavior?
According to the definition of psychology, which of the following is a mental process?
You place a raisin on your tongue and report the following: "Rough, sweet and grainy." You are using a method called...
In psychology, William James was highly influential in developing the school of thought known as...
Which best depicts John B. Watson's belief about studying human behavior?
Only visible behavior can be measured and understood.
Samantha is suffering from fatigue and sometimes cannot make herself get out of bed in the morning. She feels that the world is a sad, unhappy place and would like to be relieved of her existence. Dr. Powell and Samantha examine her feelings very closely and consider the relationships in her life which may have affected her view of life. Dr. Powell is a professional in the field of...
Dr. Ahmed strongly believes that people are not controlled by their environment, but that everyone has personal strengths and an ability to positively grow. The ______ perspective best summarizes Dr Ahmed's approach.
What is the difference between science and pseudoscience?
Science is based on critical thinking and skepticism, while pseudoscience is not supported by research based evidence.
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