# Vital Signs

Factors affecting temperature
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 89
Terms in this set (89)
Age, exercise, hormone levels, circadian rhythm, stress, environment

Age - Newborns' temperature control mechanisms are immature. Until a child reaches puberty, temperature regulation is unstable. It is not unusual for older adults to reach temperatures no higher than 96.8° F

Exercise - will increase heat production and body temperature

Hormonal level - Women experience greater fluctuations in body temperature than men. Hormonal variations occur during menstrual cycle & menopause. Women may experience hot flashes caused by an inability to control vasodilation and vasoconstriction.

Circadian rhythm - changes the body temperature over the 24-hour period. The lowest body temperature occurs between 0100 and 0400 hours. The body reaches maximum temperature at 1800 hours

Temperature alterations - related to excessive heat production, excessive heat loss, minimal heat production, minimal heat loss, or any combination of these
fever

important defense mechanism
Pyrogens - bacteria & viruses elevate body temperature
Fever is usually not harmful if it stays below 39° C (102.2° F) in adults or below 40° C (104° F) in children.
Mild temperature elevations as high as 39° C (102.2° F) enhance immune system of the body.
During a fever cellular metabolism increases, and oxygen consumption rises. Body metabolism increases 10% for every degree Celsius of temperature elevation
Heart and respiratory rates increase to meet the metabolic needs of the body for nutrients. The increased metabolism uses energy that produces additional heat.