Passing though/honey (because of freq urination and "sweet urine" containing sugar)
Total: ___ ________ children and adults in the United States have DM
Total: ______ % of population has DM
Diagnosed population with DM in US
undiagnosed population with DM in US
amount of people in US with prediabetes
How many new cases of DM dx in people 20 and older in 2010
if current rates continue, ______ in ______ babies born in 2000 will eventually develop DM
one in three
DM is ______ leading cause of death in US
Both _________ (heart disease and stroke) and ___________ (retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy) are typically seen in patients.
Heart disease and stroke account for about ___% of deaths in people with Diabetes.
Adults with Diabetes have heart disease death rates about ____ to ____ times higher than adults without Diabetes.
2 to 4
The risk for stroke is _____ to ____ times higher among people with Diabetes
2 to 4
About __% of adults with Diabetes have blood pressure greater than or equal to 130/80 mm Hg, or use prescription medications for hypertension
Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure, accounting for __% of new cases in 2008
In 2008, _____ people with diabetes began treatment for end-stage kidney disease in the United States.
In 2008, a total of ______ people with end-stage kidney disease due to diabetes were living on chronic dialysis or with a kidney transplant in the United States
Diabetes is the leading cause of ____ _______ of blindness among adults aged 20 to 74 years.
In 2005-2008, ____ ______ (28.5%) people with diabetes aged 40 years or older had diabetic retinopathy, and of these, almost ________ (4.4% of those with diabetes) had advanced diabetic retinopathy that could lead to severe vision loss.
4.2 million, 0.7 million
About ____ to ____ %of people with Diabetes have mild to severe forms of nervous system damage.
60 to 70 %
What do results of nervous system damage in DM include?
impaired sensation or pain in the feet or hands, slowed digestion of food in the stomach, carpal tunnel syndrome, and other nerve problems.
Almost ___% of people with Diabetes aged 40 years or older have impaired sensation in the feet (i.e., at least one area that lacks feeling).
Severe forms of diabetic nerve disease are a major contributing cause of________-_____ ________
More than ____% of nontraumatic lower-limb amputations occur among people with Diabetes.
In 2006, about ______ nontraumatic lower-limb amputations were performed in people with Diabetes.
DM is a heterogeneous group of syndromes characterized by an ______ in fasting blood glucose caused by a _______ or ________ deficiency of insulin.
elevation, relative or absolute
Type 1 DM is characterized by
Insulin deficiency due to autoimmunity (formerly called insulin dependent).
Type 2 DM is characterized by
Insulin resistance progressing to pancreatic B cell failure and insulin deficiency (formerly called insulin independent).
Gestational DM is characterized by
A temporary form of hyperglycemia that develops between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy.
DM can come from genetic defects T or F
What are the drugs that can cause drug induced DM?
________ _________ ________ ______ are the result of a chain of chemical reactions after an initial glycation reaction
Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs)
What are the names of the intermediate AGE products?
Amadori, Schiff base and Maillard products
T or F, AGEs may be less, or more, reactive than the initial sugars they were formed from.
Many cells in the body from tissue such as lung, liver, kidney or peripheral blood bear the _______ ___ ________ _________ ________ ______ that, when binding AGEs induces the formation of more reactive oxygen species.
Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE)
AGEs cause _______ turnover and _______ of basement membranes and other events that cause vascular pathology.
Insulin exerts important functions in non-classical insulin target tissues such as ...
the brain, pancreas, and the vascular endothelium
Insulin acts as a vasodilator in the vascular endothelium by increasing _____ ______ production.
nitric oxide (NO)
The insulin-mediated signaling pathway that triggers production of NO in vascular endothelium involves the same signaling proteins (PI3K, PKD, and Akt/PKB) that are components of ....
metabolic regulatory pathways induced by insulin
In addition to modulating vascular tone by activating signaling events in the underlying vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cell-derived NO ...
reduces the production of pro- inflammatory cytokines, reduces leukocyte and monocyte recruitment and adhesion to the endothelium, inhibits the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, inhibits apoptosis, and attenuates platelet aggregation
Inactivation of endothelial cell NO production, as occurs due to insulin resistance results in _________ __________ and promotes the development of _________ through the increased expression of cell adhesion molecules and the inflammatory response
endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis
Insulin acts as a _____ ______ and reduces hunger through binding receptors in the hypothalamus.
Metabolic syndrome is a combination of medical disorders that increase one's risk for ...
cardiovascular disease and Diabetes.
other names for metabolic syndrome
syndrome X, the insulin resistance syndrome, the deadly quartet
What is the deadly quartet?
diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease
Most patients with metabolic syndrome are...
older, obese, sedentary, and have a degree of insulin resistance
What is the most important factor in metabolic syndrome?
what is the second most important factor in metabolic syndrome?
lifestyle (i.e., decreased physical activity and excess caloric intake)
what is the third most important factor in metabolic syndrome?
Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome established when 3/5 of the risk factors are present. They are...