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14 terms

Stucture of the Nervous System

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neuron
a cell that is specialized to conduct nerve impulses
dendrite
short fiber that conducts toward the cell body of the neuron
cell body
contains the nucleus and a variety of other cellular organelles.
axon
long fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body of a neuron
reflex arc
a nerve pathway that consists of a sensory neuron, an interneuron and a motor neuron
action potential
another name for a neural impulse
neural impulse
a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon.
threshold
the minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
node
a gap in the covering of the axon
synapse
a small gap between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another neuron
neurotransmitter
a chemical that is released by a neuron for the purpose of carrying information across the gaps (synapses) between neurons
sensory neuron
nerve cell that carries information from the environment to the central nervous system
interneuron
type of neuron that connects sensory and motor neurons
motor neuron
nerve cell that carries signals from the central nervous system to muscle or gland cells