Political Science 7 International Relations (Chapter 1)
Terms in this set (59)
If an explanation of World War I argues that Germany's relative power was the cause of war, it is best described by which of the following levels of analysis?
Systemic Levels of Analysis
If an explanation of World War I argues that Germany's militarist ideology, which glorified aggressive war, was the cause of war, it is best described by which of the following perspectives?
Which of the following terms describes the substance of a cause in an explanation of an international outcome?
Which perspective describes the prisoner's dilemma as a zero-sum game, where one actor will gain and the other loses?
The realist perspective
According to the liberal perspective, which of the following factors change the basic prisoner's dilemma to a more cooperative game? (Choose all that apply.)
1. The prisoners either interact repeatedly or communicate with each other. 2. The prisoners work toward common goals.
Which of the following assumptions about the prisoner's dilemma does the identity perspective challenge?
That the prisoners have independent identities, rather than common identities
According to the realist perspective, war is a consequence of what condition that prevails in the international system?
What term refers to the idea that in an anarchic international system, there is no higher authority above states, either at home or abroad?
According to realism, which actor commands the greatest military and police forces to make war?
The realist perspective tends to define power as which of the following?
To argue that Poland has been frequently attacked because it sits in the middle of the European plains is to argue for the importance of which of the following?
What is the balance of power? (Choose all that apply.)
1. The process by which states seek to ensure that no single state dominates the international system 2. An outcome that establishes a rough equilibrium among states
What term describes the number of great powers in the international system?
Kenneth Waltz and John Mearsheimer argue that what kind of worlds are the most stable because two bigger powers have only each other to worry about?
Which of the following concepts are central to the defensive realist perspective? (Choose all that apply.)
1. Defense 2. Deterrence
Deterrence refers to . . .
The use of threatened retaliation through force to stop an attack before it occurs
According to the liberal perspective, which of the following factors helps increase cooperation? (Choose all that apply.)
1. Interactions 2. Interdependence
In contrast to the realist perspective, the liberal perspective sees which of the following factors as important in international relations? (Choose all that apply.)
1.Modernization and technological change 2. The development of increasingly complex institutions that centralize legitimate power 3. Interdependence among states
Which term refers to states behaving toward each other based largely on mutual exchanges that entail interdependent benefits or disadvantages?
Which of the following are examples of nongovernmental organizations? (Choose all that apply.)
a. Student, tourist, or professional organizations b. International labor unions c. Multinational corporations
Intrastate violence includes all of the following EXCEPT this:
Wars between states
What term describes the discussions and negotiations among states, as emphasized by the liberal perspective?
Collective goods have which of the following properties? (Choose all that apply.)
1. They cannot be appropriated. 2. They are indivisible.
Which of the following terms refers to a network of intergovernmental organizations that together make up a loose form of world government?
According to the liberal perspective, which of the following is true about institutions?
They increase efficiency and control by regularizing international contacts and communications.
As emphasized by the identity perspective, the phrase "anarchy is what states make of it" refers to the idea that state behavior is shaped by which of the following?
That the nature of the international system is constructed through the repetitive social interactions of states
The construction of identities is a process that shapes which of the following? (Choose all that apply.)
1. How actors define who they are 2. How actors behave toward one another
According to social constructivism, what are identities are constructed by?
An intersubjective discourse
Relative identities are identities that . . .
Position actors' self-images with respect to one another as similar or dissimilar
Which of the following are examples of critical theory perspectives? (Choose all that apply.)
a. Marxism b. Postmodernism
Marxist critical theory emphasizes which of the following explanations for politics?
History is driven forward by a dialectic conflict between economic classes.
The arguments that anarchy, geopolitics, or the distribution of power cause events to occur are described by which level of analysis?
The systemic level of analysis
Arguing that North Korea, like other absolute dictatorships, is dangerous is an example of an argument from which level of analysis?
The domestic level of analysis
What is a state in which domestic institutions have broken down called?
A failed state
Arguing that President George W. Bush and a small group of neoconservative advisers made the decision to invade Iraq in 2003 for their own reasons is an example of an argument from which level of analysis?
The individual level of analysis
Which level of analysis is often called a two-level game?
Foreign Policy Level of Analysis
Perspectives in international relations help us find facts and order these facts differently to explain international situations.
The realist perspective focuses on global society and international institutions.
If an explanation for World War I argues that Kaiser Wilhelm's bad diplomacy was the cause of war, it can be said that the cause is coming from the individual level.
In non-zero-sum games, both sides will always gain equally.
Realist approaches often favor multilateralism and cooperation through international institutions to mitigate anarchy.
The security dilemma results from the fact that a state, as it gains power in order to gain security, threatens the security of other states.
War is most likely to occur during moments of power transition, or when an emerging power challenges a declining power.
Defense is the use of threatened force to deter an attack before it occurs.
The balance of power prevents war.
According to the liberal perspective, hierarchy is more important than anarchy.
Historically, international law was developed to protect the interests of states. However, more recently, it has evolved to address the rights of citizens and individual human beings to protection from mistreatment.
The distribution of identities includes both internal and external identities.
Feminism is a theory that emphasizes the dialectical or conflictual relationship between capitalist and communist states in the international system.
The situation that results when one state arms to defend itself and, as a result, threatens other states is called ________.
Aligning to ensure that no one state dominates the international system is called ________, while aligning with (not against) the greatest power is known as ________.
Balance of Power, alliance
Nongovernmental organizations are nonstate actors that engage in ________ relations, or relations outside the direct influence of national governments and international institutions.
Clean air is a classic example of a ________, which is emphasized by the liberal perspective.
From the liberal perspective, the essence of international law is ________, or the inclusion of all states.
________ constructivism is an identity perspective that allows for greater influence on the part of independent actors in shaping identity.
________ are those that position actors' self-images with respect to one another as similar or dissimilar, while ________ are those that overlap and fuse based on norms and images that cannot be traced back to specific identities or their interrelationships.
Relative Identities, Shared Identities
Groups of individuals or countries that share a broad base of common knowledge and trust are better known as ________.
The ________ refers to a phenomenon whereby as countries become stronger and stronger democracies, they tend not to go to war with one another or engage in military threats.
Jacques Derrida and Michel Foucault are two theorists associated with ________, or a group of critical theories that seek to expose the hidden meanings of language and discourse in international relations in order to gain space to imagine alternatives.