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106 terms

09 fall semester final

identification review for semester one final in mr. white's class
STUDY
PLAY
torah
sacred jewish text; first 5 books of old testament; laws and customs
abraham
father of israelites; made special covenant with god; first jewish guy
hittites
first to extract iron from ore; used the iron for weapons
ziggurat
religious temple/site in ancient societies; worshiping and sacrificing might occur there
hammurabi's code
1st ever attempt to write down the laws of a society--bablyon
cultural diffusion
spread of ideas, customs, technologies; occurs during migration, trade, and war
socrates
teacher of plato; used a method of questioning to invoke thought from students; died after drinking hemlock as a punishment for corrupting athens' youth
plato
student of socrates; distrusted democracies; wrote "The Republic"
aristotle
plato's student; developed "golden mean"; founded Lyceum; alexander the great's teacher
alexander the great
conquered LARGE empire including egypt, persia, india; combined cultures at a high level;
acropolis
location of temples in greek cities dedicated gods and goddesses;
athens
philosophical and artistic and democratic society; strong navy
sparta
militaristic society; education was minimal; discipline was key; most of work done by slaves; strong army
julius caesar
essentially ended Rome Republic by taking over; put down many rebellions; assassinated by senators who feared his power; developed special calendar
hannibal
carthaginian general who wanted revenge on rome; led army including elephants to rome through alps
cuneiform
earliest form of writing; creation of sumerians; system of pictographs
great schism
official split between roman catholic (west) and orthodox (east) churches; based on a difference of opinion on icons
five pillars
duties of islams including: declaration of faith, prayer, alms, ramadan, hajj
quran
holy scriptures of islam; based on bible and torah
shiite
muslims who believe the leader of the muslims should be a descendant of Muhammad
sunni
muslims who believe the leader of muslims should be the most qualified
sufi
muslims; worshipped god by meditating, fasting, and dancing
akbar the great
builder of mughal empire; preached/practiced tolerance; built good government through diverse advisors and qualified workers
Justinian
emperor of byzantine empire (rome); put laws together into a code; built the hagia sofia (a nice church)
gothic
architectural type; defined by flying buttresses; spires, and gargoyles...many cathedrals are built in this style
thomas aquinas
wrote summa theologica; determined faith and reason exist in harmony...and proved it in his book; now a saint
magna carta
signed in England by King John; protected nobles certain rights like habeus corpus; laid foundation for limited power governments
dante alighieri
Italian poet; wrote Divine Comedy--story about a journey through purgatory and hell
william the conqueror
only person to ever conquor england as an outsider; wrote the domesday book to help run country; one of the first to solidify the power of the king
council of clermont
when Pope Urban II called all christians to wage war against the "infidels" and take back the holy land; beginning of the Crusades
concordant of worms
settled the feud that started with Henry IV and Gregory VII (lay investiture); church could elect and name bishops...not emperors
papal supremacy
declaration that churches had more authority than emperors/governments; exemplified by Innocent III and Gregory VII
colbert
finance minister for louis xiv; mercantalist policies; made a france a very wealthy nation
versailles
palace for louis xiv; represented teh wealth, power, and excess of the french monarchy
oliver cromwell
leader of the roundheads during english civil war; led england when it was the "commonwealth"; led as dictator; puritan
commonwealth
name given to england when oliver cromwell was "lord protector"; occured after english civil war and between Charles I and charles II
charles I
"absolute" monarch of england, refused to sign petition of right, treated parliament and foes badly; eventually executed by parliament
charles II
signed petition of right; was catholic but allowed church of england; ruled after commonwealth
long parliament
during charles I reign in england; was in session when english civil war broke out; refused to adjourn because of their distrust of charles I
missi dominici
provencial rulers of charlemagne; enforced rules and collected taxes
3 field system
method of crop rotation to make soil last longer: used grain, legumes, and nothing
benedictine rule
monastic life guidelines; obedience, chastity, and poverty
treaty of verdun
after charlemagne's death, split his empire into 3 for his grandsons; empire never recovered
charlemagne
leader of franks; united western europe; spread christianity; named holy roman emperor by leo III
innocent iii
implemented/solidified the concept of papal supremacy; made the papal office extreme powerful
abu bakr
muhammad's father in law; succeeded him leader of the muslims
geoffrey chaucer
english writer; wrote canterbury tales about a group of people travelling to st. thomas more's grave
joan of arc
french teen who got message from god to save france; she did; later captured and burned at stake as heretic; now a saint
suleiman the magnificent
greatest ottoman ruler; expanded ottoman lands in all directions
babur
founder of the mughal empire; military genius; grandfather of akbar the great
charles martel
leader of franks; defeated muslims at battle of tours; probably prevented europe from becoming muslim
feudalism
in medieval europe; used for protection of all peoples from attackers; a governing system and an economic system
mecca
#1 holy city for muslims; birthplace of muhammad; location of kaaba; destination of hajj
edict of nantes
issued by henry iv to protect huguenots; revoked by louis xiv
cardinal richelieu
advisor to louis xiii; believed in absolutism
charles v
holy roman emperor; member of hapsburg famly; father of phillip ii
phillip ii
defender of catholic faith; sent spanish armada to destruction
escorial
estate of phillip ii; included a church
absolutism
belief that rulers only answered to god; rulers got power through divine right
spanish armada
phillip's attempt to rid the world of elizabeth and england; was unsuccessful; bad leadership and bad weather
louis xiv
absolute ruler in france; ruled for a long time; ran france into ground after colbert died with bad decisions; playboy and partier
inquistion
court set up by catholics to defend the faith; also tried to reconvert people to catholicism
copernicus
first to say the sun is the center of the universe; did not actually prove it
galileo
improved telescope; proved copernicus's theory; had to rescind beliefs in front of inquisition
francis bacon
believed experimentation was the way to truth
rene descartes
believed logic was the way to truth; together with bacon's idea set stage for the scientific method
isaac newton
developed calculus, laws of motion, and theory of gravity
glorious revolution
bloodless transfer of power in england; brought in william and mary as rulers and english bill of rights
english bill of rights
signed by william and mary; gave rights to british citizens never guaranteed before; precursor to american version
limited monarcy
type of government in england after glorious revolution; when a king/queen shares power with a governing body
william and mary
rulers of england after glorious revolution; signed english bill of rights
30 years war
devasting war in europe between protestants/catholics; also between monarchs/princes; left europe seriously depopulated
peace of westphalia
ended 30 years war
hapsburg
family name of austrian and spanish rulers
prince henry
architect of portuguese exploration; invented caravel
vasco da gama
first to reach india going around cape of good hope; sailed for portugal
christopher columbus
sailed west to get to india; reached "new world"; sailed for spain
treaty of tordesillas
decided by pope alexander; split up new world between spain and portugal at the Line of Demarcation
ferdinand magellan
1st to circumnavigate the world; sailed for spain; died on journey in phillipines
boers
dutch farmers in south africa; first european settlers in africa; calvinist beliefs
renaissance
time of new learning and ideas after the middle ages
medici family
ruled florence, italy; major patron of the arts
leonardo da vinci
1st "renaissance man"; painted last supper and mona lisa
michelangelo
painted ceiling of sistine chapel and sculpted david
machiavelli
wrote "the prince"; gave direction to rulers as to how to keep power and rule well
gutenberg
german inventor of movable-type printing press; truly changed the world
shakespeare
wrote romeo and juliet; wrote 36 other plays; great linguist
martin luther
wrote 95 theses; attacked corruption of catholic church; excommunicated from catholic church for beliefs; believed salvation came through faith and bible, not deeds; ideas became basis for protestant reformation
indulgences
sold by church to raise money; allowed believers to bypass purgatory and go straight to heaven
95 theses
list of complaints against the catholic church by martin luther; posted on the front door of a church in wittenburg, germany
peace of augsburg
agreement between german princes that allowed each of them to choose the religion of their territory; necessary because of the growth of the reformation
john calvin
developed a faith based on closeness to god; founded a society in switzerland for this group
predestination
belief that god has already decided what will happen to everything and everyone; big belief of john calvin
henry viii
started church of england when pope would not annul marriage to catherine; ended up having 6 wives; father of edward vi, mary tudor, and elizabeth
catherine of aragon
1st wife of henry viii; catholic; mother of mary tudor; henry wanted divorce because she did not give him a son
mary tudor
catholic daughter of henry viii and catherine of aragon; became queen after edward vi; ruled as staunch catholic; attacked all protestants and their beleifs; married phillip ii of spain
anne boleyn
2nd wife of henry viii; mother of elizabeth; beheaded for treason when she did not give henry viii a son
act of supremacy
law passed by parliament naming henry viii the leader of the church of england; officially broke off the england from the catholic church forever
elizabethan settlement
policy by elizabeth allowing both catholics and protestantst to worship in england freely; very much calmed england after the tumultuous rule of mary tudor
jesuits
faction of catholic priests who tried to preserve and expand the catholic faith; education was also important to them
ignatius loyola
founder of the jesuits
maria theresa
leader of austria; first major successful women monarch; reorganized government and saved austria from being overtaken because of her leadership
hohenzollern
family name of prussian leaders
frederick william i
established prussia as a european power; developed an outstanding army for his country; his used that army to expand territory
peter the great
russian leader who tried to westernize russia; also attempted to gain a warm water port for russia
catherine the great
leader of russia; attained warm water port for russia; suppressed power of nobles and made life even tougher for peasants