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AP Biology - Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism (GR Packet)
AP Biology For test on October 23
Terms in this set (57)
Totality of an organism's chemical reactions
Reactions release energy; break down molecules; i.e. cellular respiration
Reactions consume energy; build up larger molecules; considered "uphill"; i.e. photosynthesis
Required to catalyze both catabolic and anabolic reactions
Associated with relative motion of objects
Because of location or structure
(∆G) Portion of a system's energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system
Cellular respiration is an ... reaction.
Photosynthesis is an ... reaction.
In photosynthesis, plants capture ... energy from the sun to fuel the reaction; light is converted then to chemical energy
Reaction type: Spontaneous
Reaction type: -∆G
Reaction type: Less stable
Reaction type: More free energy in reactants
Reaction type: Not spontaneous
Reaction type: +∆G
Reaction type: More stable
Reaction type: Less free energy in reactants
Synthesis of polymers from monomers
Movement across a membrane against the concentration gradient
Physical movement of objects/items within the body (i.e. chromosomes during cell reproduction)
Three phosphate groups connected to a ribose connected to an adenine
The last ... group in ATP is most likely to be broken off to produce energy
Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water; process through which the final phosphate group is broken off from the ATP
Full name of ATP
ATP: When the terminal phosphate bond is broken, a molecule of inorganic phosphate is formed and energy is ...
Is ∆G positive or negative in the following reaction?
ATP --> ADP + Pi
Reaction type for ATP --> ADP + Pi
Ability to use energy released by ATP hydrolysis directly to drive reactions that are, by themselves, endergonic; use of an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic one
In many cellular reactions, a phosphate group is transferred from ATP to some other molecule in order to make the second molecule less stable. The second molecule is said to be ...
Chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
Energy required to contort the reactant molecules so the bonds can break; the initial amount of energy needed to start the reaction
An enzyme ... the activation energy barrier enabling the reactants to absorb enough energy to reach the transition state
The ∆G value of a reaction is ... by the introduction of an enzyme.
Macromolecule that acts as a catalyst
Reactant that an enzyme acts on
Restricted region (pocket or groove) of the enzyme molecule that actually binds to the substrate
New molecules that exit the enzyme after the reaction
First law of thermodynamics
Energy is neither created nor destroyed; it is only transferred from one form to another.
Second law of thermodynamics
An energy transfer is never 100% efficient ('Law of entropy'); For all the ecologists out there: this law gives rise to the 10% rule :)
Amino acids that form the active site change shape slightly to better hold the substrate snuggly; enzyme will wrap around the substrate
Enzyme only bonds to one substrate due to the shape of active site
Enzyme mechanism to lower activation energy: For two or more reactants, the enzyme can be shaped appropriately to ... the molecules to allow a reaction to occur.
Enzyme mechanism to lower activation energy: The enzyme can stretch and bend the substrates to help break key ... that must be broken.
Enzyme mechanism to lower activation energy: The enzyme can provide a ... is more conducive to the reaction.
Enzyme mechanism to lower activation energy: Direct ... of the active site in the reaction.
Affects rate of enzyme action because more substrate molecules, the more frequently they access the active sites of the enzyme
If the pH and temperature are not correct, protein-based enzymes can ...
Require nonprotein helpers for activity in enzyme
Organic cofactor molecules
Some reversible inhibitors resemble the normal substrate molecule and compete for active site; they reduce productivity of enzyme by blocking active sites; easy to overcome by increasing substrate concentration
They do not directly compete with substrate; they bind to another part of the enzyme that causes the enzyme to change shape in such a way that the active site is less effective
Protein's function at one site is affected by the binding of a regulatory molecule to a separate site
Binds to the enzyme and induces the enzyme's active form
Substance that binds to an allosteric site on an enzyme and stabilizes the inactive form of the enzyme
A kind of allosteric regulation whereby a shape change in one subunit of a protein caused by substrate binding is transmitted to all the others, facilitating binding of subsequent substrate molecules
A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway.
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